What follows below is a timeline of the medieval period of the Hunno-Bulgars. 


Chapter One
The Source : 354 AD – 480 AD

354 AD The First Bulgars: The first mentioning of the Bulgars by an unknown chronicler who wrote in Latin. In the chronograph it goes on to mention a Bulgar named, Shem, whose son was called, Ziezi. The 'Anonymous chronograph' as it is called, lists the Bulgars as one of the new tribes of barbarians to the east of the Black Sea. Here the Bulgars were known as the Vh'nduri, and were a mixture of Altaic Nomadic Horsemen Tribes, Sarmatians (Iranian Peoples), and Oguri (Uguri) Turkish Peoples.

ca. 360 AD The Huns crushed the toughest of the Sarmatian Tribes, The Alans.Soon after this, the Huns had the Sarmatians as their allies.

ca. 370 AD The Bulgars and the Ostrogoths were beaten by the Huns. Those whodo not join in the Hunnish ranks, fled before them.

373-376 AD AD The Alano-Gothic War: The Alans and the Goths began a war over the lands within Dacia. At its conclusion the Alans came to Dacia, the Ostrogoths were beaten once again, and the Visigoths were forced to invade Thrace.

378 AD The Huns crossed the Kerch Stait in the Crimea.

ca. 380 ADTribes of Sarmatians (Alans) began to migrate westward into the Pannonian Steppes and in the middle of the Danubian area.

406 AD Gaul Attacked!: The Alans and the Vandals attacked Gaul to the west.

409 AD The Alans and the Vandals continued their 'World Tour' by invading Spain, raping, looting, and burning the countryside

410 AD The Sacking of Rome: Rome was sacked by the Visigoths.

418 AD The Visigoths attacked the Alans in Spain, and defeated them. TheAlans due to depleted numbers in the Western Horde, merged withtheir buddies, the Vandals.

420 AD Base In Pannonia: The Huns made their home in the Pannonian Steppes as a stranglehold on the Roman and the Byzantine Empires.

422 AD King's Daughter Taken!: The Bulgars engaged the Lombards in a pitched battle along the northern slopes of the Carpathians and were victorious! After the defeat of the Germanic Lombards, the Bulgars carried away King Agelmund's daughter with the other spoils of war.

427 AD The Taking of Carthage: The Alans (Sarmatians) and the Vandals attacked Tunisia in North Africa. Carthage was taken!

434 AD The Death of Sublime Khan Ruga: Sublime Khan Bleda came to power after the death of Sublime Khan Ruga. At the time Attila, the brother of Bleda, was Khan over a Hunnish ulus (or in other words was Bleda's 2nd in command). With this event, Bleda and Attila then decided to exact a heavy peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire which they got. In the treaty it stated that every year 700 pounds of gold would be given as tribute to the Huns. Also in the provisions of the treaty, all Huns previously enlisted into the Byzantine military would have to be extradited, and they would not be allowed to enlist anymore. Lastly, a free trade agreement was struck up in the treaty which said that merchants of the Huns would be allowed free access in any of the Byzantine border towns.

434-440 AD Bulgars Causing Trouble: Khan Attila was sent by his brother eastward to retake control over the North Caucasus Area where tribes of Sarmatians and Bulgars were getting out of hand. Khan Attila was victorious and everybody fell back in line. At the conclusion of this, King Gaiseric of the Vandals and the Western Alans, as well as the Sassanian Shah, Yazdagard II, had a great deal of respect for Attila.

441-443 AD More Tribute Needed: Khan Attila was sent by Sublime Khan Bleda to assault the Byzantine frontier to extract a heavier tribute from their empire. Attila Khan first attacked the Danubian frontier and pushed through the Byzantine fortresses without too much problem. By 443 AD, the Huns reached well into the South within the empire, and so the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II (408-450 AD), sued for peace paying 6,000 pounds of gold per year to the Huns.

444 AD The Rise To Power: Sublime Khan Attila came to power as the absolute ruler of the Huns and their allies after his brother Bleda died. Some say it was a hunting accident, others say it was self-defense, and others treachery.

447 AD Hunnish Warriors Attack!: A great invasion was launched by Sublime Khan Attila on the Byzantine Empire. As said in the biography of St. Hypatius, "The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured. There were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered." Attila rode as far south as Thermopylae and devastated a large Byzantine army commanded by a German named Arnegliscus after taking heavy losses. Marcianople, the greatest city in Thrace, was burned down to the ground. Unfortunately, disease infected the Huns, and the Hunnish blitzkrieg was slowed. Constantinople and the Emperor once again sued for peace, and payment was in excess of 10,000 pounds of gold. Even Senators and the rich were taxed this time to come up with the gold, with their wives having to sell their jewelry as well as old family heirlooms.

448 AD The Height of the Hunnish Empire: The Huns became so rich with gold that no taxation was imposed on any of the Sublime Khan's people.

451 AD Campaign In The West: Sublime Khan Attila launched a campaign in the West attacking Gaul. The campaign was initiated after the Princess Honoria, sister of the Roman Emperor, Valentinian III (425-455 AD), was denied to Attila in marriage. Sublime Khan Attila only wished a mere half of the Roman Empire to be given as her dowry. The Gaulic cities of Reims, Langres, and Besancon were sacked and put to the torch.
451 AD The Battle of The Catalaunian Fields: This battle was fought in June, 451 AD, in a large plain with a small hill in Gaul. In this most severe of battles, Sublime Khan Attila assembled Huns, Bulgars, Ostrogoths, Gepids, Heruls, the Eastern Alans, and a section of the Franks. His enemy, the Roman Commander Aetius, commanded the Romans, the Burgundians, the Visigoths, the Western Alans, and another portionof Franks. On each side many leaders fought and died throughout theday as the battle grew "fierce, confused, monstrous, unrelenting" asreported by the historian Jordanes. The total numbers of infantryand horsemen, have been calculated by modern historians at 50,000who fought in the battle. After great amounts of casualties were taken on both sides, Aetius, won an indecisive victory, in that Sublime Khan Attila was forced to leave the Gaulic theater of war.

452 AD Italian Campaign To Sack Rome: Sublime Khan Attila set off on his Italian Campaign to sack Rome itself still pursuing the Princess Honoria's hand in marriage. The city of Aquileia was taken after a protracted siege and was destroyed thus securing Northern Italy for Attila. Aetius, in the meantime had lost support of the Western Alans who did not like fighting their cousins back in 451 AD, and thus left the Romans to rot with their own problems with Attila. Aetius also had lost the Visigoth's support, and so he did not press for battle with Attila. Sublime Khan Attila took city by city, all the way Rome, but famine, and disease (Malaria) struck at the Huns and their allies (with the Bulgars amongst them). After meeting with a delegation from Rome, Sublime Khan Attila received thousands of pounds of gold to conclude peace with the Romans. He then withdrew.

453 AD The Death of Sublime Khan Attila: Sublime Khan Attila died on his wedding night with a young, German bride named, Ildico, where he was found in the morning with blood coming from his head. Ellak, Attila's eldest son was made Sublime Khan of the Huns. Dengizik, Attila's 2nd eldest son, was made Khan of the people who would later become the Kutriguri, while Ernak, the youngest son, was made Khan of the people who would later become the Utiguri.

454 AD Dengizik Khan, and Ernak Khan, came to disagreements with Sublime Khan Ellak and began to engage him in battle along thelower Danube region. Ellak won a decisive victory against theDengizik's and Ernak's hordes, so the other two brothers were forced to retreat with their people to the east to Ugol or Bessarabia. However, his Hunnish forces (the people who would later become the Sabiri) were weakened by that engagement.

454-455 AD The Germans Revolt!: King Ardaric, leader of the Gepids and other Germanic peoples, revolted against Hunnish rule with the support of the Byzantine Emperor Marcian. By 455 AD, a battle was fought in the Pannonian Steppes near a river called Nedeo. The Battle of the Nedeo River was won decisively by King Ardaric, and Sublime Khan Ellak was killed in combat. After 455 AD, the Hunnish Empire began to collapse. As a consequence of this victory, the Gepids, Heruls, Skirians, and Ostrogoths were assigned territory given to them by the Emperor Marcian (450-457 AD) to serve as a buffer against the warlike Huns, Bulgars, and Sarmatians.

460-465 AD A New Home: Dengizik Khan and Ernak Khan began to forge a small empire for themselves centering in Bessarbia, and stretching into Dacia as well as Dobrudja. Slavic peoples (Antes), one Alanic tribe, and some Germanic tribes were beaten up by the Huns and sent away to the South in the Byzantine Empire.

463 AD Constantinople received an embassy of Saraguri and Onogunduri(Onoguri) ambassadors.

464-465 AD The remains of Ellak's forces, began to intermingle and breed with the Bulgars in the east near Daghestan close to the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea. The resultant mixture of Vh'nduri, Saraguri, Onoguri (Onogunduri), and Alans, started the genesis of the Hunno-Bulgars (more commonly called Bulgars after 500 AD).

466-467 AD The Byzantines under Emperor Leo I (457-474 AD), began a tradeembargo with all Hunnish merchants in border cities and towns oftheirs near the Danube River.

467-469 AD The Danubian War (468-469 AD): Dengizik Khan of the nation who would later become the Kutriguri, crosses the Danube River with his horde during the winter (467) and demanded payment in gold. Once this was refused, Khan Dengizik attacked Byzantine possessions in the South thus beginning The Danubian War (468-469 AD). The Byzantine Commander, Anagast (Anagestes), immediately was put to the task of bringing down the Hunnish attacks. After two years of bitter combat, Dengizik Khan and his horde, were defeated. Dengizik Khan was killed in combat, and his people were routed. His head was taken atop a spear and paraded before the Circus in the capital, Constantinople before the Emperor. The remainder of his nation went eastward to the region of land between the Dniepr and Don rivers, settling with the nomadic horsemen people of that area.

469-470 AD Ernak Khan and his people, were admitted into the Byzantine Empire as federates, and given land in Dobrudja (under Byzantineimposed conditions of peace).

480s AD After Ernak Khan's death, his successors and people settled to the east of their relatives in the Azov-Taman region (or blended in with their cousins, the Bulgars right there in the Danubian region). Like Ellak's people, who had settled in Daghestan, Ernak's ulus began to intermingle with the Bulgars, Sarmatians, and Eastern Antes to give rise to the Hunno-Bulgars. Note that because the Huns had been dealing with Goths, Gepids, Heruls, and Rugii for the last 100 or so years, it is not unreasonable to assume that interbreeding had gone on between them and the Germans (as Sublime Khan Attila had married Ildico, a German woman)(thus the Hunno-Bulgars were part German also).

Chapter Two
The Early Days: 480 AD – 558 AD

480-481 AD Bulgar Mercenaries: The Emperor Zeno (474-491 AD) hired Bulgar mercenaries to fight against the Ostrogoths under King Theodoric the Great, when they attacked Constantinople. The Bulgars and the Byzantines killed many of the Ostrogoths, and were victorious. King Theodoric the Great was forced to retreat.

487 AD The Bulgars under Khan Lalbertem were hired by the Emperor Zeno again to fight against a different Theodoric, son of Triarius, whose forces encompassed more Germanic tribes. After being initially repulsed by the Germanic tribes, the Bulgars with the Byzantines forced this other Theodoric to retreat after an attack on the capital, Constantinople.

488 AD Khan Lalbertem and the Bulgars, with help from the Gepids, were hired again to stop King Theodoric the Great from entering Italy with his Ostrogoths. After a pitched battle near the River Ulka, at a place called Sirmium, the Khan Lalbertem and his Kavkhan Buzan were slain with the Bulgars losing the battle. King Theodoric the Great, went on with his Italian Campaign unhindered.

493 AD The Hunno-Bulgars attacked and ravaged Thrace.

498-499 AD The Hunno-Bulgars attacked and ravaged Thrace again. This time they defeated an enormous Byzantine army of 15,000 soldiers in a battle near the River Curta. In this fight, the Byzantines lose 4,000 men, and four of their generals to the glorious Bulgars! Illiricum and Thrace are now left open for further exploitation.

499-502 AD The Hunno-Bulgars lay waste to the countryside of Illyricum and Thrace within the Byzantine Empire.

505 AD The Hunno-Bulgar, Mund, a commander of Byzantine federates in the region of the middle Danube, revolted against the Byzantine Empire with groups of Hunno-Bulgars, Gepids, and Goths. The commander of Byzantine forces of Illyricum, Sabinian, took 10,000 troops and forced Mund to retreat North after a fierce battle at Margum. Sabinian was helped with Hunno-Bulgar cavalry, so Hunno-Bulgar was seen fighting Hunno-Bulgar.

512 AD The Beginning of The Long Wall: The Long Wall was built from Derkos on the Black Sea to Seylmbria on the Sea of Marmora by the Byzantines under Emperor Anastasius I (491-518 AD) which stretched some 50 miles to protect against the Hunno-Bulgar raids.

513 AD Vitalian: Vitalian the Thracian, revolted against the Byzantine Empire, and brought to his aid many Hunno-Bulgar warriors. Vitalian's total army numbered some 50,000 people which he then led through The Long Wall without too much resistance. After reaching the capital, Constantinople, gifts and gold were sent to Vitalian which appeased him, and so the assault was called off. Vitalian, now went back to Dobrudja, and was attacked by a new Byzantine army of 80,000 men under the command of Hypatius. Vitalian annihilated the Byzantine army and captured the former Magister Hypatius. Vitalian now went back to Constantinople and was bribed once again to call off the assault for 5,000 pounds of gold and the Byzantine appointment to Magister Militum of Thrace (Master of Soldiers).

515-516 AD The Bulgars Called In: Vitalian summoned the help of Ogus Sabiri and more Hunno-Bulgars after he suspected the Emperor Anastasius I, not to keep his word. Sure enough the Emperor declared at court, "There is no law which orders the emperor to lie and to violate his oath if it is necessary for the well-being of the empire.", in 516 AD. Vitalian then led his rebel forces and Hunno-Bulgar allies to the gates of Constantinople for a third time. Unfortunately, the imperial troops were led by a skillful and courageous general, Justin, who was also a Thracian like Vitalian. The battle was joined between the two, and Justin was victorious in that his navy used 'Greek Fire' which wasted Vitalian's naval assault. Once the navy was destroyed, the land forces were thrown into disarray, and Justin took advantage of it. Vitalian was forced to retreat back to Dobrudja with his army.

517-518 AD An army of Slavs (Antes), then descended on Thrace, destroying the countryside in the wake of the fight (Illyricum and Macedonia hit). Justin I (518-527 AD) then attacked and destroyed the Slavic force.

518 AD The Murder of Vitalian: The Emperor Anastasius I died, and was replaced by Justin I. The new emperor lured Vitalian from Dobrudja promising him amnesty and to make him a Consul once at Constantinople. Vitalian then came to the city and was murdered after he was bestowed Consul by Justin I.

519 AD The Hunno-Bulgars out of their dislike for the Byzantines, descended down South into Illyricum, and sacked the countryside out of revenge for Vitalian. Justin I soon put to the field a force to contend with the Bulgar menace, but the Byzantine army was soundly defeated. 527 ADThe Emperor Justin I died and was replaced by his nephew Justinian. The reign of Justinian I lasted from 527-565 AD. Looking for new allies for the empire, Justinian I, asked the Kutriguri for help.

528 AD Grod The Traitor: Khan Grod, not too long thereafter did come to Constantinople and in an act of cultural stupidity, was baptized becoming the emperor's ally. When Grod returned home to Taurida, the Kutriguri put him to death, because the head of the Christian Church in the East was that of the Byzantine Emperor himself, which meant Grod was a traitor since there was no division of Church and State. Grod had further aggravated the situation by trying to destroy Altaic Shamanistic beliefs amongst his people. Grod's brother, Mugel then became Khan of the Kutriguri.

530 AD The Emperor Justinian I let the Hunno-Bulgar, Mund, rule in Sirmium to help defend the empire from other invaders. Soon enough Mund was put to the field of battle with his army of Hunno-Bulgars, and Gepids against an opposing force of Hunno-Bulgars who tried to invade Thrace. Mund and his forces were victorious, and the other army of Hunno-Bulgars were killed, driven off, or were captured. The captured Hunno-Bulgars were later enlisted in the Byzantine armies in Armenia and Lasica.

535 AD The Hunno-Bulgars of the North and East (Kutriguri, Onogunduri, and Sabiri), decided to attack and invade Mysia. Also, mentioned are the Bulgars being involved with the Battle At The River of Jatrus.

537-538 AD The Byzantines under the commander, Belisarius, were attacked by Goths in Rome. The Hunno-Bulgars (1,600) came to the rescue of the small garrison force defending Rome, and helped drive away the Goths by March, 538 AD. These Hunno-Bulgars were the same ones enlisted earlier in the Byzantine armies in Armenia and Lasica.

538-540 AD The Hunno-Bulgars, most likely Ogus Kutriguri and Ogus Utiguri under the leadership of Khan Drogo and Khan Vulger begin to invade Thrace. By 539 AD, the invasion picked up momentum and the intensity of the attacks increased. From the Aegean to Illyricum down to the Adriatic Sea, the Bulgars ravage and destroy 32 Byzantine fortresses. 120,000 Byzantine citizens are taken captive and are moved back into Kutriguri and Utiguri lands (those who weren't were ransomed back for gold). By 540 AD, large groups of Slavs follow in the hoof prints of the Bulgars by looting Thrace. The Hunno-Bulgar Mund is either dead by this time or was annihilated by Khan Drogo and Khan Vulger. The Byzantine federates of Mund either joined or died. Considering some of the fortresses were taken without any preliminary siege it was possible that Mund's Hunno-Bulgar federates possibly ended up helping their cousins actually capture the target fortresses (from within).

544-545 AD More and more Slavs decided to invade the Balkan Peninsula with Thrace, Dobrudja, Sirmium, and Illyricum as their targets. First came the Antes from the Northeast and then came the Sclaveni from the North. By 545 AD, the Antes agreed to become the Empire's federates serving to garrison the Fortress of Tyras and to help stop Kutriguri horsemen from invading.

546 AD Hunno-Bulgars living within the Byzantine Empire as federates, frequently were requested by Commander Belisarius, who was stationed at Rome, to help kill Goths that were invading Italy. The Hunno-Bulgar federates were now given control over the Fortress of Perusia by the Emperor to a Hunno-Bulgar local leader named, Odolgan.

547 AD More Antes (Slavs) were used to assist Byzantine armies against the Ostrogoths. Antic families commonly settled down within the borders of the Byzantine Empire by this time. Invasions became more subtle.

547-552 AD Sclavinae (Slavs) invaded Thrace with more vigor than their cousins, the Antes.

548 AD The Hunno-Bulgars federates revolted and sided with the Goths to attack Byzantine interests in Italy.

548 AD Ogus Kutriguri crushed the Tetraxite (Trapezite) Goths occupying their abodes and forced this branch of Goths to become servants of Ogus Utiguri to the Southeast.

551 AD Ogus Kutriguri under Khan Khinialon pushed through the Antic defense barrier, and attacked Byzantine possessions with 12,000 Kutriguri warriors as well as a force of Gepids (Germans). The Fortress of Tyras garrisoned earlier by Antes was overwhelmed. Soon, the Emperor Justinian I (527-565 AD), bribed Ogus Utiguri under Khan Sandilch with rich presents and gold to attack their cousins from the north. Khan Sandilch with the Utiguri decided to take up the offer and mounted an offensive against the Kutriguri. With the Utiguri, Tetraxite (Trapezite) Goths took part as well in order to exact their revenge. After a time, a fierce battle was fought and the Kutriguri lost with Khan Khinialon losing his life (many Kutriguri prisoners were taken as well as their herds of horses via. the words of the historian, Procopius). Khan Sandilch was so effective, that Justinian I offered his protection to the Kutriguri to settle in Thrace and money to retire, now under Khan Sinnion. The Utiguri and the Kutriguri then talked things over, and saw the treacherous policy of the Byzantines. Ogus Kutriguri now decided to join with their cousins, Ogus Utiguri, but first the two withdrew back to the northeast because Justinian I gave the Utiguri tribute in gold each year. Some tribes of Kutriguri decided to stay in Thrace as federates instead, induced by more bribery.

Chapter Three
Storm of the Avars: 558 AD – 610 AD

558 AD The Rise of Khan Zabergan: Khan Zabergan of the Kutriguri (House Dulo) invaded the Byzantine Empire with the rest of his kinsmen and Slavic forces to get back at Justinian I. After crossing the Danube River, Zabergan divided his horde into three separate armies, with one targeting the Adriatic side of the empire, another attacking Thrace, and the largest for the emperor himself at Constantinople. Khan Zabergan after demolishing his way down through The Long Wall and into the suburbs of Constantinople, attempted to press the city by sea. The Slavs then set forth in a number of improvised rafts, but were annihilated by the 'Greek Fire' of the Byzantine Navy under the aged General Belisarius. After this, General Belisarius forced Khan Zabergan's main army back beyond The Long Wall by prolonged battle after battle losing many imperial troops. Zabergan's other two armies fought as far as Thermopylae and The Fortress of Cherson. The Emperor Justinian I, in reaction to the Hunno-Bulgars, concluded a deal with a new people coming to the steppes around the Black Sea called the Avars, to attack the Bulgars.

559-560 AD After realizing the war was not going quicker than planned, Khan Zabergan set up his headquarters at Arcadiople so that he could form a stranglehold on the majority of Thrace. Justinian I then sent rich gifts of gold and silver to bribe the Kutriguri to return to their homes in Azov Steppes (near Taurida), which they accepted because trouble was forming to the east of Taurida with the coming of the Avars.

559-560 AD The Storm of the Avars: The powerful, nomadic horsemen people, the Avars swept into Pontic and Azov Steppes, led by their mighty Khagan Kandich. First, the Turkic Avars with their new invention involving the iron stirrup, conquered the Sabiri (559 AD). Then, they attacked the Utiguri under Khan Sandilch, and the Utiguri were subjugated (560 AD). Next, Khan Zabergan and the Kutriguri went to fight with the Avars. The Kutriguri asked the Antes for help, but the Slavs wanted no part in the upcoming battle. So, after a time, the Kutriguri were beaten and became a subject race of the Avars. Khan Zabergan was forced to bow before the Khagan.

561 AD The Avars crossed the Dniester River and came into the lands of the Antes (Slavs), Bessarbia. An Antic envoy, Mezamer, tried to open diplomacy with the Avars to avert further fighting, but was put to death instead on the advice of Khan Zabergan given to the Khagan. The Avars then resumed the struggle and crushed the Antes at the pleasure of the Kutriguri.

562 AD Khagan Kandich died and was replaced by Khagan Bayan (562-617 AD) as absolute leader of the Avars. The Avars then rode into Dobrudja to the South of Bessarabia (on the doorstep of Byzantium). The Byzantines didn't care for this too much, and so Avaro-Byzantine relations started to turn sour.

565 AD The Byzantine Emperor Justinian I died and was replaced by Emperor Justin II (565-578 AD).

567 AD The Avars with their Hunno-Bulgar allies rushed forward to do battle with the Gepids (Germans) in the Pannonian Steppes. Beforelong, Pannonia was in Avar hands with the Gepids slaughtered ordriven out. With the Gepids, it seems there were some Bulgars living with them who also resisted the Avars, and subsequently joined their cousins (the Kutriguri) or were chased away. Khagan Bayan then came to make Pannonia the headquarters of the Avars.

568-569 AD Lombards (Langobards), Gepids, and Hunno-Bulgars (the same that were defeated with the Gepids back in 567 AD), under the command of the German King Albion, decided to invade Italy.

568-572 AD Ogus Utiguri was challenged and conquered by the Turkish Kaganate with the Avars losing control of these Hunno-Bulgars to the Turks. The leader of the Turks was Khagan Sildjibu

573 AD Byzantine Emperor Justin II concluded a peace treaty with the Avars which required hostages to be exchanged on both sides. The Avars offered the children of Hunno-Bulgar Khans to satisfy the Byzantine Empire's aims.

576 AD The Turkish Kaganate focused it's interests in the Crimea which was controlled by the Byzantine Empire. Several Utigur detachments with a Turkish brigade, crossed the Kerch Strait and lay siege to the Fortress of Bosporus. The fortress soon fell to the Turks. 578 ADByzantine Emperor Justin II died and was replaced by Emperor Tiberius I Constantine (578-582 AD). The Hunno-Bulgar hostages given to the Byzantines in 573 AD were likely given back to the Avar Kaganate.

581-584 AD Slavs (Antes and Sclaveni) settled in the Balkans in large populations in response to the coming of the Avars and the weakening of Byzantine power.

581-588 AD The Turkish Kaganate began a protracted civil war which allowed Ogus Utiguri to be free of Turkish control. Here two new nations were formed, the Eastern Turkish Khanate and the Western Turkish Khanate.

582 AD The Avar Khagan Bayan appointed Gostun as the Khan of the Kutriguri (582-584 AD)(House Ermi) after Khan Zabergan's death in an invasion of Byzantium in northern Illyricum. Here the Avars and the Hunno-Bulgars attacked and seized the Fortress of Sirmium on the lower Sava River. Byzantium hastily concluded a peace treaty with the Avars, promising to give them an annual 80,000 gold coins.

Late 582 AD Byzantine Emperor Tiberius I Constantine died and was replaced by Emperor Maurice (582-602 AD) who agreed to pay the Avars an annual 100,000 gold coins to Khagan Bayan.

583-590 AD Khagan Bayan demanded even more gold per year from Byzantium, but when this was not fulfilled, the Avars and the Hunno-Bulgars invaded Illyricum pillaging and burning Byzantine possessions. The Avars and their allies then crossed the Balkan mountain range. Once beyond this, they seized Anchialus and made this into their headquarters (since there were comfortable spas there which the Khagan's wives indulged in). From then on until 590 AD, the Avars were to push southward against a pathetic Byzantine defensive.

590 AD The Byzantine Emperor Maurice signed a peace treaty with the Avars since an ongoing war with the Persian Empire was being conducted.

591-593 AD A peace treaty was signed with the Persians by the Byzantines. Subsequently, the Emperor Maurice was able to turn his attention to the problems in the Balkans, thus beginning a war at first with the Slavs. The Byzantine General Priscus then attacked north and destroyed two large armies of Slavs under their respective leaders, Ardagast (Eastern Antic name), and Busok (another Antic name). After this occurred, Khagan Bayan protested the invasion of the Slavic domain, since he considered this his own. Priscus then hearing this divided the booty, fearing a war with the Avars and the Bulgars, which the Khagan accepted. 5,000 Slav prisoners were also sent amongst the spoils to the Khagan. The Emperor displeased with these diplomatic gestures with the Avars, replaced Priscus with his own brother, Peter, temporarily until 593 AD.

593 AD The Breaking of Peace: The Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs attacked south against Byzantine lands below the Danube-Sava Frontier breaking the previous treaty. Once in striking distance of Beograd (later called Belgrade), the allies laid siege, but were driven away by the Byzantine forces under General Priscus. The Avars then signed a peace treaty with the Byzantines. The Emperor Maurice then replaced General Priscus again with General Peter, because the Emperor was afraid Priscus would outshine his own previous career.

595-597 AD The peace treaty this time was broken by the Byzantines after General Peter attacked a detachment of 1,000 Bulgars near the frontier not far from the Danube River (at a place called Anasamus) with a much larger amount of Byzantine soldiers. The Bulgars routed the Byzantines after taking many trophies. This necessitated the Emperor to send his apologies to Khagan Bayan, but to no avail. War started, causing Maurice to send back the competent General Priscus.

597-598 AD The Avars and their allies started a major campaign against the Byzantines through a blitzkrieg into Dalmatia and Illyricum. Total carnage ensued with the victorious allies taking some 40 Byzantine fortresses. In 597 AD, Belgrade was sieged and finally taken by the Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs. By 598 AD, lower Moesia and Dobrudja fell to the allies.

599-600 AD A final push by Khagan Bayan was made with his armies of Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs all the way to the walls of Constantinople. Luckily for the Byzantines, the allies were struck with an epidemic and forced to reconsider their situation once Khagan Bayan lost several sons to this plague. The allies in poor shape now retreated away from Constantinople and took with them 17,000 captives from the suburbs.The Khagan then demanded the sum of 8,500 pieces of gold (1/2 gold a piece per prisoner), but the Emperor refused. To this affect, Khagan Bayan then proceeded to slay the hostages, which in turn made Maurice very unpopular amongst his people.

600 AD Seven Slavic tribes under Avar permission, formed a confederation amongst themselves from the Yantra to the Black Sea in Dobrudja.

600 AD The Byzantines retook the Fortress of Sirmium and recaptured a lot of the lands lost in the previous years below the Danube-Sava Frontier. After this, they agreed to a peace treaty with the Avars, which they intended to break before long since the treaty called for 120,000 pieces of gold to be paid to the Avars as annual tribute or 'protection money'. As quickly as the treaty was signed, it was broken by the Byzantines, who then crossed the Danube River.

600-601 AD The Byzantines attacked with great vigor and pushed up the Tisza River where they hoped to crush the Avars once and for all. After winning a major battle in 601 AD against the Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs, the Byzantines camped above in this new frontier over the Winter. However, morale was poor amongst the Byzantine forces and so a revolt broke out (when the soldiers had not been paid in several months). A Byzantine named Phocas won out in the fight against the loyalists, and then led the army back towards Constantinople (Phocas was a mere junior officer in the ranks).

ca. 600 AD Organa became Regent of the Onogunduri after Khan Houdbaad died. Khan Houdbaad, was probably placed there in his role by the Avar Khagan Bayan as a puppet (Houdbaad does not sound like a Bulgar name) and probably had no direct genetic relationship to Kubrat (House of Dulo) who was too young to lead Ogus Onogunduri. Organa was Kubrat's maternal uncle, which is why he became Regent (600s-620s), instead of Khan. It is possible that Khan Houdbaad died as a result of the plague in 599 AD, or in the Byzantine assault near the Tisza River where the Avars and their allies lost a major battle in 601 AD.

602 AD The new, Byzantine general, Phocas was admitted by the disaffected people into Constantinople where the Senate greeted him. The Emperor Maurice tried to flee, but was caught. Maurice and his whole family were put to death. The Senate decreed Phocas as the new Emperor (602-610 AD). Then the Persians declared war against the Byzantines, which the Avars, and their allies were happy about.

602-604 AD The Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs recaptured Byzantine lands just south of the Danubian Frontier (Dobrudja). They were then bribed by the Byzantines for peace, which the allies accepted as sufficient.

602-610 AD The Persians attacked Byzantine possessions in the East, and won many victories. Eastern provinces within the Byzantine Empire fell to the Persians and only began to be slowed when Emperor Phocas was removed forcibly from office by General Heraclius.

Chapter Four
The Rise and Fall of the First State: 610 – 660 AD

610 AD Heraclius became the new Byzantine Emperor (610-641 AD). The Emperor got to work, and the Persians were hindered in their progress to an extent. During this time, Kubrat came to the capital, Constantinople, and became educated in Byzantine ways. Organa thought this was a good idea, since the Onogunduri had always wanted eventually to gain their independence from the Avars. The Byzantines in turn hoped to see the Bulgars do this since it would significantly decrease Avar power. Organa may have done this under some other pretext than having Kubrat be a hostage so as to not endanger the Dulo dynasty should war break out between the Avars and the Byzantines.

610-614 AD Khan Kubrat continued his education in Constantinople presumably. When the Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs attacked in 614 AD against the Byzantines in Dalmatia, Khan Kubrat may have left the Empire out of preservation of his life. Khagan Bayan then proceeded to sack and destroy the city of Salona. The city of Epidaurus also fell to the invaders. However, the Byzantine city of Split was able to hold out.

614-616 AD The Avaro-Byzantine War continued in the northwest in respect to Constantinople with the Byzantine cities of Nis and Sardica falling to the Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs. In 615 AD Persian forces pressed from the east and got to the Bosphorus. At the same time from the north, great numbers of Slavs (Sclaveni and Antic tribes) made their way into the Balkans to settle there permanently. Unfortunately, the Avars and their allies were stopped by the stubborn resistance of the city of Thessaloniki in 616 AD. Peace was made thereafter when the Avars were bribed to go away. Also, prisoners the Avars had were sold to help increase the profit of the venture.

617 AD The Avar Khagan Bayan died, and was replaced by his son (?). This new unnamed Khagan, soon wanted new ratification of the old treaty made in 616 AD between himself and Emperor Heraclius. The Emperor detected an ambush at the designated spot, Heracleia, which the Avars had planned. After a fierce struggle, the Byzantines forced the Allies to retreat. However, the Avars were at least able to sack the suburbs of Constantinople before they decided to finally go north. With the Avars, many captives were taken above the Danube. No counter strike from the Byzantines was launched out of concern of the war with the Persians going poorly.

619 AD The Avar Khagan (presumably the son of Khagan Bayan), attacked the Balkans past the frontier and brought back 270,000 captives this time with his forces. At the same time, the Persians caused Egypt to fall away from the Byzantine Empire.

619 AD The Rise of Khan Kubrat: Khan Kubrat, his chief wife, and his uncle, Organa, visited Constantinople under the disposition of signing an alliance with the Byzantines. The whole Bulgar embassy was accepted and given many honors, including the rank of Patricius (Kubrat and Organa). After a treaty was signed between Emperor Heraclius and Khan Kubrat, for the Onogunduri to secede from the Avar foot, the group stayed for a while at the capital. The Onogunduri then went east towards their old homes.

621 AD The Avars and the Byzantines signed another peace treaty for some unknown amount of annual tribute in gold.

622 AD The Avar Khagan demanded an increase of annual tribute as well as hostages from the Emperor's family. Emperor Heraclius agreed and sent the 'protection money' to the Khagan as well as some of his family so that he could continue the war in the east against the Persians with more focus.

622 AD The beginning of the Islamic era.

622-626 AD During this time the war with the Persians continued in respect to the Byzantines (the war now entered into it's 2nd decade). More lands were won by the Persians, however the Byzantines did manage some large victories over the Persians within Asia Minor (here the Persians were flushed out). In the meantime, the Avars enjoyed their tribute. Towards 625-626 AD, the Avars entered into parleys with the Persians to begin a new assault on the Byzantine Empire.

625 AD The formation of the Khazar State to the east of the Onogunduri. Some tribes of the Saraguri and the Utiguri fell into the dominion of the Khazars (as such Bulgar fought Bulgar when tension between the Khazars and Khan Kubrat arose).
626 AD The Byzantines signed into an alliance with the newly formed Khazar State against the Persians.

626 AD The Avars and their allies, consisting of Slavs, Gepids (Germans), and Hunno-Bulgars (minus Ogus Onogunduri who under Khan Kubrat decided to be neutral), entered into a military alliance with the Persians against the Byzantine Empire. While the Persians attacked from the Asiatic shores of the Bosphorus towards Constantinople, the Avar forces attacked from the north penetrating through the Long Wall. The Avar Khagan (the son of Khagan Bayan), laid siege on Constantinople without the direct joint effort of the Persians, since Emperor Heraclius was in Asia Minor attacking the Persians under their General, Shahrbaraz (holding them up). Constantinople in the meantime, was left to the defenses set up by Patriarch Sergius in the Emperor’s absence. The first assault was given by the Khagan through his Slavic navy, but this failed miserably against the superior Byzantine navy. On the land, the Byzantines additionally broke the siege by a successful sortie from their cavalry. This on the whole caused the Avars and their allies to withdraw to the Long Wall, while the Emperor and his brother defeated the Persian forces in the east. After this point, the Avars and their allies began to break apart thus beginning the downfall of Avar supremacy (the Khagan treated the Slavs poorly especially after the failure of his navy).

627-628 AD The Byzantines launched a counterattack on the Persians and the Emperor was victorious (especially at Nineveh). By 628 AD, they took Dastagerd. Soon, the Persian War ended once the Persian King Chosroes was murdered. At the end, the Byzantines had recaptured all the territory that had formally belonged to them (Armenia, Roman Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt).

627-631 AD The Avars, Bulgars, and Slavs furthered their independence from one another as Avar power continued to decrease. In 629 AD, the Slavic Confederation of Seven Tribes fought against the Avars and gained their own lands free of Avar tyranny.

632 AD The beginning of the Arab expansion.

632-635 AD The Kutriguri, Onogunduri, the rest of the Utiguri and Saraguri tribes not under the control of the Khazars, decided to proclaim Khan Kubrat as the new chief of chiefs, Kana Subigi Kubrat (or Khagan Kubrat) (632-651 AD). After this a massive, Hunno-Bulgar revolt was carried forth by the new Bulgar alliance against the Avars, which also included the help of the Confederation of Seven Slavic Tribes, as well as the Gepids. Khagan Kubrat laid waste to the Avars and then proceeded to flush their blood out of his new formed state, Great Bulgaria (by 635 AD). At the conclusion of this war with the Avars, Kana Subigi Kubrat completed a new treaty with the Byzantine Empire still under Emperor Heraclius (much to the irritation of the Khazars on their eastern border).

635 AD The New Capitol Established: Kana Subigi Kubrat established Phanagoria as the capital city of Great Bulgaria along the shores of the Sea of Azov.

641 AD Emperor Heraclius died and was eventually replaced by Byzantine Emperor Heraclonas who was in turn removed from office by the Senate and the newly proclaimed Emperor Constans II (641-668 AD).

642 AD Kana Subigi Kubrat presumably was involved with the widow of the late Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, Empress Martina. Martina needed the protection of the Khagan to protect her as well as her remaining children.

651 AD The Arabs under Caliph Othman (644-656 AD) attacked through into the North Caucasus (through the Pass of Derbend) against the Khazars. The Khazars counterattacked the Arab army and defeated them causing them to turn back.

ca. 660 Kana Subigi Kubrat died and was buried ceremoniously at Malaya Pereshchepina. In his stead, his eldest son Bayan, became Kana Subigi Bayan (ca. 660). There were Byzantine coins in the image of Emperor Constans II dating to 647 AD in the grave, so the grave at least cannot be older than 647 AD. It was presumed that Kana Subigi Kubrat died sometime in the 660s because his reign was reported to last 60 years from the famous ‘List of Khans’ made by the Hunno-Bulgars in Pliska.

Chapter Five
Sands to the Wind: 660 AD – 681 AD

ca. 660 AD Kana Subigi Bayan (Bezmer), fought the Khazars throughout his reign which was to last 3 years after the death of his father according to the ‘List of Khans’. Eventually the Khazars prevailed over the Hunno-Bulgars for a time. Bayan died or was forced into Khazar servitude for the rest of his life.

668 AD The Byzantine Emperor Constans II died and was replaced by his son, Emperor Constantine IV (668-685 AD). ca. 668 AD The Hunno-Bulgars under Khan Kotrag (630s-690s)(Khan of the Kotrags or three, large tribes of Kutriguri)(2nd Son of Kubrat), Khan Asparukh (640s-701 AD)(Khan of the Onogunduri)(3rd Son of Kubrat), Khan Kuber (640s-690s)(Khan of the Kutriguri)(4th Son of Kubrat), and Knaz Altzek (640s-690s)(Prince of Altzek Bulgars)(5th Son of Kubrat), continued for a while to prolong the conflict against the Khazars, Avars, and the Arabs. During this time, each Ogus of Bulgars was separate and independent from the rest under it’s own unique leadership. At the end, the Kotrags traveled North to found their own separate Hunno-Bulgar Empire with it’s capital city, Bulgar, at the junction between the Volga and Kama Rivers. The Onogunduri and some of the tribes of the Utiguri fought on under Khan Asparukh against the Khazars. The Kutriguri after a time under Khan Kuber went westward and settled under the Avar suzerainty in the 660s with his brother Knaz Altzek who had his own Bulgar tribes (the Kutriguri settled in the region of Sirmium

ca. 668 AD Knaz Altzek with an unknown group of tribes attacked the Avars for control over all of Pannonian Steppes. Unfortunately, the Avars gained the upper hand, and so the Bulgars under his command were forced to flee. Khan Kuber during this time probably took a position of neutrality. Altzek’s 9,000 Bulgars settled then in Bavaria under the control of King Dagobert (King of the Franks)(who agreed to let the Bulgars stay on the land). Later on, a surprise attack at night was ordered by the King for his people to attack (Franks and Germans), and so the tribes of Hunno-Bulgars were decimated with this treachery. Yet once again, Knaz Altzek took the remaining 700 Bulgar warriors, and settled these finally with their families (a total probably of around 2,000 Bulgars) in Northern Italy (668 AD) at the permission of the Lombard King Grimwald.
ca. 670 AD Khan Asparukh was proclaimed by the remaining Hunno-Bulgars under his command as Kana Subigi Asparukh (670s-701 AD). After this occurred, the Hunno-Bulgars (Onogunduri and some portions of the Utiguri) were attacked by the Khazars with new found vigor. However, Kana Subigi Asparukh repeatedly defeated the Khazars in a series of defensive battles and forced them back across the Dniepr River. In coordination with his older brother, Khan Kuber revolted against the Avars causing them alarming losses of their warriors as the Avars pursued Khan Kuber southward. The Kutriguri defeated the Avars six times and finally set up their own independent state, separate from Kana Asparukh’s Bulgarian Empire, agreeing to peace with the Byzantines

674-675 AD Khan Kuber with the Kutriguri created and solidified his own state in Balkans centered in Macedonia under the support of the peace treaty drawn up with the Byzantines.

674-678 AD The Arabs repeatedly assaulted Constantinople by sea and repeatedly failed to take it, losing a lot of their navy to ‘Greek Fire’ from the superior Byzantine navy. These actions helped the Hunno-Bulgars solidify their power in the Danubian Theater under Kana Subigi Asperukh and in the Macedonian Theater under Khan Kuber. Kana Subigi Asperukh pushed more so into Bessarabia (the region north of the Danube River) and Wallachia forcing out Slavic tribes (The Confederation of Seven Tribes) to live elsewhere or more favorably to ally with him in his new state (thus the Confederation was broken up).

678 AD A peace treaty was drawn up between the Emperor Constantine IV and Caliph Muawija I (661-680 AD) of the Arabs whereby the Arabs had to pay tribute to the Byzantines a sum of 3,000 pieces of gold annually as well as 50 prisoners and 50 horses. In this same year, the Khagan of the Avars paid homage to the Emperor as well as a lot of the tribal leaders of the Slavs in the Balkans. Kana Subigi Asparukh on the other hand was strong in his Empire above the Danube stretching over to the Dniepr River in the east, did not pay homage to the Emperor.

678-680 AD Emperor Constantine IV began preparations for war against the Onogunduri and Utiguri in the North..

680 AD Emperor Constantine IV declared war against the Asparouhian Bulgar Empire centered north of the Danube. The Emperor brought with him large amounts of cavalry from Asia Minor with his navy, and his legions of infantry from his southern provinces. At first the Bulgars, pulled away from the large army of Byzantines and left them to the difficulties of the swampy terrain. The Emperor meanwhile became sick and left his forces to his lower commanders. The impatient Byzantines grew tired of chasing the Bulgars and so withdrew across the Danube. When this happened, the Bulgars attacked the Imperial forces while at a ford, and caused the river to grow red with Byzantine blood. The Byzantines then retreated hastily under swarms of Bulgar arrows, and were hit hard by the Bulgars all the way through Dobrudja till the district of Varna. During this engagement, Ogus Kutriguri under Khan Kuber was urged by his brother to start up hostilities against the Byzantines in the province of Salonica (and it’s primary city, Thessalonica).

Chapter Six
The Beginning of the Second Bulgar Empire: 681 AD – 721 AD

681 AD The Formation of A New Bulgar State: As reported by Theophanes, “To the great disgrace of the Roman name”, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV signed a humiliating peace treaty with Kana Subigi Asparukh which severed formally lands previously assigned to the Byzantines directly into Bulgar hands. The rest of the Slavic tribes of the old Confederation were again united due to these land gains and as such the Slavs now served the Asparouhian Empire. The Asparouhian Empire was thus recognized formally as a legitimate power in foreign countries.
681 AD Pliska: Kana Subigi Asparukh established his capital at Pliska, which at first was a huge walled camp in a plain some 23 sq. km. Pliska was filled with Bulgar gerler or tents and had space for warehouses, stores, kapishte or temples, as well as a palace. In terms of the government, Kana Subigi Asparukh, set up a council of twelve boylar or leaders (this number would change in future years) who helped make decisions within his new found state.

681-685 AD Khan Kuber continued plans for enlarging his state by encroaching on Byzantine lands in the province of Salonica.

685 AD Emperor Constantine IV died and was replaced by his son, Emperor Justinian II (685-695 AD; 705-711 AD). Caliph Abdalmalik (685-705 AD) also replaced Caliph Merwan I (684-685 AD) amongst the Arabs.

685 AD Khan Kuber and Kavkhan Mavr (called ‘Maurus’ by the Byzantines) staged a fake civil war amongst the Kutriguri to capture Salonica and Thessalonica. Unfortunately, the Byzantines were informed and the plan failed when the Emperor’s General or Strategus named, Sisinius, showed up in Salonica. After this failure, the Kutriguri settled in a peace treaty with the Byzantines.

688-689 AD

Emperor Justinian II began a campaign against Khan Kuber’s state in Macedonia going against the treaty agreed upon in 685 AD. He first took his armies across Thrace and attacked the Slavic tribes allied with Khan Kuber. In this regard, he came to take 30,000 Slavic prisoners which he shipped to Asia Minor to help serve in his legions far to the east against the Arabs. The Emperor hoped to depopulate Khan Kuber’s state which in turn hurt the state a great deal. Once in Thessalonica, the Emperor celebrated his great victory over the Kuberian State shipping the Slavic prisoners from there to the Opsikion Theme. He then returned towards Constantinople in 689 AD, but met an ambush set up by the Kutriguri. The Bulgars decimated Justinian’s army nearly destroying all of it, whereby the Emperor barely escaped with his life. The booty previously won by the Emperor was lost to Khan Kuber and the Kutriguri. In this way, the Kutriguri came to not trust the Byzantines under Justinian II

691-692 AD The Byzantines and Arabs began a new war against each other. Slavic prisoners captured by the Arabs in the Opsikion Theme were in turn moved to Syria and used within the Arab armies against the Byzantines.

695 AD Byzantine Emperor Justinian II was deposed by General Leontius who then became Emperor Leontius (695-698 AD). The mobs giving support to Leontius killed Justinian’s officials and even went so far as to cut off Justinian’s nose. After this Justinian was exiled to Cherson, where he then escaped to the Khazar court.

697-698 AD The Arabs attacked Byzantine possessions in Africa and took the city of Carthage. Emperor Leontius rushed with his navy to the scene, but were defeated at land and sea by the Arabs. After this, the Byzantines retreated and then quarreled amongst themselves until Leontius was overthrown by a man named, Apsimar. Apsimar then had Leontius’ nose cut off as Justinian II before him. Later on, Apsimar was hailed as the new Emperor Tiberius II (698-705 AD). Leontius in turn was confined into a monastery to live out his days.
ca. 700 AD The Norse began to come into the upper Volga region to trade and deal with the Kotrags (the Kotrags in the upper Volga region became the Volga Bulgars, also known as the Black Bulgars or Silver Bulgars) (the term ‘Black’ signifies North while the term ‘Silver’ signifies the abundance of silver amongst their lands).

701 AD Hands of Gold and Silver: Kana Subigi Asparukh died in a battle against the Khazars. He was soon replaced by his son, Kana Subigi Tervel (Tarvel)(701-721 AD).

ca. 704 AD The old, deposed Emperor Justinian II was extradited out of the Khaganate of the Khazars at the request of the Byzantine Emperor Tiberius II. Justinian II who was already married to the Khazar Khagan’s sister, then came to the Hunno-Bulgar Capital, Pliska. He then asked Kana Subigi Tervel’s for help in restoring him to power to which the Bulgar leader agreed to do. After this, Justinian II, offered his daughter in marriage to Kana Subigi Tervel to which the Khan accepted.

704-705 AD Preparations for war with the Byzantine Empire were made by Kana Subigi Tervel. The Bulgar leader asked his uncles including Khan Kuber for help against the Byzantine Empire in restoring Justinian II, but they refused because they despised Justinian (see 688-689 AD in terms of the Kutriguri’s disposition to Justinian II). So, the Kuberian State did not join in the war when it happened in 705 AD.

705 AD The Bulgar and Byzantine War of 705 AD: War was begun between the Bulgars under Kana Subigi Tervel and the Byzantines under Emperor Tiberius II. Kana Subigi Tervel laid waste to the Byzantine forces from his frontier, through the Long Wall, and all the way to the walls of Constantinople. Once there, he sacked the suburbs, but was held up by the cities defenses. However, Justinian II crawled into the city through the sewer drains and staged a successful uprising within the capital. After this, Emperor Tiberius II fled the city, and was dethroned as Emperor giving Justinian II a second term as Emperor (705-711 AD). Kana Subigi Tervel was then richly rewarded with an annual tribute in gold as well as being given the title, Caesar. Additionally given to the Bulgar leader was the province of Zagora at the edge of Asparouhian Bulgar State in the south.

705 AD Emperor Justinian II finally caught Tiberius II (Apsimar) and the older Leontius which were then publicly humiliated. After this, they were executed. Tiberius’ officers were additionally hung from the walls of Constantinople.

ca. 705 AD After 705 AD, no more historical accounts were given to support when Khan Kuber died or how. Presumably, he was quite old by this time, but his State lived on for another 15-20 years after his demise
708 AD Byzantine Emperor Justinian II, growing tired of paying Kana Subigi Tervel an annual tribute, began to make preparations for an invasion of the Asparouhian Bulgar State. Later on, the Emperor attacked the province of Zagora in an attempt to recapture it, but Kana Subigi Tervel stopped him cold at Anchialus just north of the Long Wall. Here, the Hunno-Bulgars managed to crush the Imperial forces of the Byzantines where those that were left alive were either taken prisoner or were routed. The Emperor Justinian II was now on the top hit list of every Hunno-Bulgar whether in the Asparouhian Bulgar State or amongst the Kutriguri (under the former Khan Kuber).

709 AD The Arabs laid siege to the Byzantine city of Tyana and captured it.

709-710 AD The Arabs pushed further into Byzantine lands in the east where they took over many fortresses. This was made a lot easier by Emperor Justinian II’s purge of talented commanders who were suspected of being sympathizers against him

711 AD Emperor Justinian II was overthrown by a revolt started in the city of Cherson (supported by Byzantine rebels, the Hunno-Bulgars, and the Khazar government). The revolution spread to other cities, until finally Constantinople fell too. One of the Emperor’s own officers slew him and had his head cut off for display at Rome (for earlier cruelties suffered during his reign). Justinian II’s son was also put to death and thus the House of Heraclius had come to an end.

711-713 AD Byzantine Emperor Philippicus came to power (711-713 AD). At the same time, Kana Subigi Tervel started up a campaign ravaging Thrace south of the Long Wall and the province of Zagora. The Hunno-Bulgars under Kana Subigi Tervel defeated and routed the Byzantine armies twice by 712 AD. Later on, Kana Subigi Tervel forced his way to the walls of Constantinople where he pillaged the suburbs before returning home with the spoils of war (he never successfully broke through the walls and gained entry to the city).

712 AD The Arabs succeeded in the conquest of Khoresmia in Turkestan under Caliph Walid I (705-715 AD).

712-716 AD Emperor Justinian II was overthrown by a revolt started in the city of Cherson (supported by Byzantine rebels, the Hunno-Bulgars, and the Khazar government). The revolution spread to other cities, until finally Constantinople fell too. One of the Emperor’s own officers slew him and had his head cut off for display at Rome (for earlier cruelties suffered during his reign). Justinian II’s son was also put to death and thus the House of Heraclius had come to an end.

713 AD Byzantine Emperor Anastasius II came to power (713-715 AD) after Philippicus was blinded forcibly (the Byzantines no longer considered it productive to cut off the noses of dethroned emperors).

714 AD Byzantine Civil War: A six month civil war broke out in the Byzantine Empire started by the Hellenized Ostrogoths, Slavs, and other peoples in the OpsikionTheme proclaiming a reluctant Theodosius as Emperor.

714-717 AD The Khazars and the Arabs started up a war which raged in the Caucasus Area. Some of the tribes of the Utiguri and Saraguri were used by the Khazars against the Arabs, but Derbend was still seized by General Maslama and the Arab forces before their offensive was stopped. Also helping the Khazars, were contigents of ‘As’ or Aso-Slavs. Note the Saraguri by this time were considered to be a part of Ogus Sabiri (which was a culmination of Onoguri and Saraguri contigents, but the Onoguri (Onogunduri) were no longer a part of this confederation (and hadn’t been since before 632 AD)).

715 AD Byzantine Emperor Theodosius III came to power (715-717 AD) after Anastasius II was forced to step down. Anastasius II then became a monk in the city of Thessalonica.

716 AD Kana Subigi Tervel and Emperor Theodosius III signed a peace treaty declaring an alliance between the two great nations of Bulgaria and Byzantium against the Arabs. In the treaty it stated that Bulgaria was to keep the province of Zagora, and that the new boundry was to extend from the Bay of Burgas on the Black Sea to the Maritsa River, such that the city of Adrianople remained in Byzantine hands. It further went on to grant the Bulgars an annual tribute in gold as well as defining commercial relations between the two powers. Lastly, it declared that the prisoners previously captured would be exchanged. Ogus Kutriguri within the Kuberian Bulgar State agreed to help Kana Subigi Tervel against the Arabs because Justinian II was no longer alive. Presumably, the Khazars and the Bulgars were also at peace because of the progress of the Arabs..

717 AD Byzantine Emperor Leo III came to power (717-741 AD) through the Byzantine military deposing Theodosius III (before this Leo had been a general and was an accomplished strategist). After a short time, the Emperor signed and renewed the Bulgar-Byzantine Peace Accord of 716 AD out of the need of more military aid. During this year, the Arabs being ruled by Caliph Omar II (715-720 AD), were led through Byzantine lands in the east (Asia Minor) to take part in a siege against Constantinople. At the head of this army was the Caliph’s brother, General Maslama

717-718 AD The Arab-Byzantine War progressed until General Maslama was at the walls of Constantinople with his Arab army. While the Arabs unsuccessfully tried to take the city by a naval assault, the Hunno-Bulgars under Kana Subigi Tervel swept aside the Arab siege on the land by inflicting terrible losses upon their men. Additionally, the Arabs suffered from a particularly bad Winter in 717-718 AD to which they were unaccustomed to. On the other hand, the Bulgars were used to this weather, so Kana Subigi Tervel’s campaign flourished in this regard. A total of more than 30,000 Arabs were killed by the Onogunduri, Kutriguri, and Utiguri by the time August came in 718 AD. In that month the Arabs decided to retreat with their greatly diminished army pulling away from Byzantine waters through small, agile ships that avoided the ‘Greek Fire’.

Chapter Seven
Struggle of the Bulgars: 721 AD – 796 AD

ca. 721 AD    After the death of Kana Subigi Tervel, the Kutriguri fell under the Avar foot yet once again causing the Kuberian State to collapse. Ogus Kutriguri then migrated north to the Pannonian Steppes where they would have to wait until Khan Krum’s rise to power in the late 790s before wrestling free of the Avars.

724-739 AD    Kana Subigi Sevar of House Dulo came to power amongst the Hunno-Bulgars. He was most likely a close relative to Kana Subigi Tervel. Since both were from House Dulo, nothing was reported concerning his rule. Since very few foreign affairs were conducted with the Bulgarian Khanate (Emperor Leo III’s Peace Treaty held up).

726-732 AD    The Khazar-Arabic War began were the Arabs once again attacked through into the Caucasus Area against the Khazars and their allies. Defending the Caucasus, were tribes of Utiguri and Sabiri Bulgars who repeatedly proved themselves in battle to be much feared by the Arabs throughout the war.

735 AD    The Swedes (the Norse) began a war with Magyars in the area of the Donets River. Through a fierce battle, the Swedes siezed Verkhni Saltov and won the war. The Magyars after losing, retreated south to the Don River.

737-738 AD    The Arabs under General Marvan invaded the Caucasus breaking through the defenses set up by the Khazars (the Sabiri and the tribes of Utiguri defending the Caucasus were beaten). After this, the invasion turned towards the lower part of the Don River, where over 20,000 Aso-Slavs were captured after fighting the Arabs. The Magyars, a Hunnish people similar to the Bulgars, were forced to remove themselves to the region around the Dniepr River from the lower part of the Don River.

739 AD    Kana Subigi Sevar died and after this, the boylar began a Bulgarian civil war where two parties contested for absolute control of the Khanate. One party was led by House Ugain who were anti-Byzantine in nature and the other was led by House Ukil who were pro-Byzantine. Leading House Ukil, was Kormisosh and after a time, the pro-Byzantine faction won out. Kana Subigi Kormisosh came to power amongst the Hunno-Bulgars (739-756 AD) replacing the anti-Byzantine mentality with one of that wanted to adopt more Byzantine ways amongst the Bulgars.

741 AD    Byzantine Emperor Constantine V came to power (741-775 AD) after the death of his father, Emperor Leo III.

742-743 AD    The Byzantines declared war on the Arabs, but soon after this, a civil war broke out in the Byzantine Empire which halted the entire affair. Leading the opposing faction was Strategus Artabasdus from the Armeniakon Theme who already was married to Constantine’s sister. General Artabasdus attacked the Emperor’s forces in the Ospikion Theme (Asia Minor) and defeated them. The Emperor was forced to flee Constantinople, but later defeated Artabasdus at Sardes in 743 AD. Artabasdus and his two sons were blinded in the Hippodrome after their failure with their supporters publicly executed or tortured.

750 AD    The beginning of the Abbasid Dynasty under Caliph as-Saffach (750-754 AD) of the Arabs, and the end of the Umayyad Dynasty which allowed Emperor Constantine V to focus on the Bulgarian Khanate with more focus then before. The Swedes established control over the Aso-Slavs further to the south of Donets Region as well as the Rus tribes in the Azov Area. Aquiring land and people, the Swedes gained the attention of the Khazars, but knew their place was not powerful enough to not to challenge the Khazars. As such, they became the vassals of the Khazars. After this the whole group of Swedes, Rus, and Aso-Slavs became eventually known as the Rus.

751 AD    Another Khazar-Arabic war began where the Khazars attacked the Arabs through three areas in the Caucasus Mountains. In the western theater of the Khazar thrust, the Sabiri helped destroy Arab forces. After some time, peace was made between the two empires, but Ogus Sabiri wanted nothing to do with peace since they had lost their lands back in 737-738 AD. As such, the Sabiri continued the war until they had slaughtered the Arabs in their old abodes in Daghestan.

751-756 AD    The Ogus Sabiri controlled their own territory in Daghestan (near the Daryal Pass in the Caucasus) and had their own independence free of foreign rule. Their Capital City was Gudea along the banks of Kura River. The territory was filled with Saraguri Bulgars and Aso-Slavs or ‘As’. It is also possible that very old tribes of Onogunduri Bulgars were also part of the Sabiri Khanate (Onogunduri (Onoguri) tribes that were native to the area from ca. 464-465 AD).

755-756 AD    Byzantine Emperor Constantine V settled thousands of Armenian and Syrian people in Thrace to help buffer the area against the Bulgars while building a series of forts to protect the frontier further reinforcing the Long Wall. Kana Subigi Kormisosh once favorable towards the Byzantines, now protested with pressure to do so from his military Beylik (the boylar). The Byzantines in response ignored the Bulgar’s protest and so war was declared by the Bulgarian Khanate. By 756 AD, the Hunno-Bulgar forces rode through to the Long Wall, but were badly beaten by the Byzantine forces directly under the Emperor. Later on, Kana Subigi Kormisosh died (probably from wounds sustained in the previous battle), but had a son to replace him, Vinekh.
The Arabs attacked Daghestan and the Sabiri Khanate. After fierce fighting, the Sabiri lost and all their tribes retreated northwest to join with the Magyars. Those which didn’t like that idea, joined with the Khazars to the north or the Bulgarian Khanate in the west. In total an estimated 50,000 people from the Sabiri Khanate escaped from the Arab menace.

756 AD    Kana Subigi Vinekh became leader of the Hunno-Bulgars (756-762 AD) and immediately set about attacking Byzantine interests to the south. House Ukil was still in power within the Bulgarian Khanate.

757 AD    Emperor Constantine V landed at the mouth of the Danube with his Byzantine legions and ravaged the Bulgar territory around it. After a time, the Emperor took his forces and marched south to the Fortress of Marcellae where he defeated the Bulgar army who was trying to siege it. The loss was so complete for the Bulgars, that the Slavs began thinking about their own independence.

758 AD    The Byzantines attacked and subdued the Slavs in Thrace and Macedonia under Emperor Constantine V who were wanted to set up their own independent state free of Bulgars and Byzantines. The Khazars and the Arabs arranged better relations between each other by a diplomatic marriage of a Khazar princess to the Caliph, al-Mansur (754-775 AD).

759 AD    The Bulgars were defeated by the Byzantine legions at the Battle of Vergava (between Pliska and Diampolis). Emperor Constantine V then had a large Byzantine occupational force set itself up in the midst of the Bulgarian Khanate near Vergava. Later on, Kana Subigi Vinekh attacked and destroyed the occupational force which included the death of a Thracian Strategus. However, the previous defeats directly under the Emperor caused the Bulgar leader to sue for peace rather than suffer another possible defeat (the Khanate’s one victory was when the Emperor was away). According to Vernadsky, a mixture of Slavs and Bulgars attacked the Byzantine occupational force, but did not get further because of internal conflicts between the two peoples.
The Khazar princess died in supposed childbirth, so the Khazars who were suspicious of the incident declared another war upon the Arabs. The Sabiri who numbered 10,000 warriors rode with their commander in the Khazar military called an, As-Tarkhan, against the Arabs and slew many past the Caucasian Gates in the Arabic territories. Additionally noted, the Arab Northern Army was defeated by the Khazars, with the Sabiri taking control of an area called, al-Laks.

761-762 AD    The Bulgar Khanate suffered a civil war during this period between House Ukil with Kana Subigi Vinekh at it’s head versus House Ugain with a boyl named Teletz commanding the rival faction. At the end, House Ukil lost and most of it’s representation was put to death with Kana Subigi Vinekh being killed. House Ugain and the anti-Roman faction was in charge with the Bulgarian Khanate’s policy being now one which was pro-traditionalistic (anti-Byzantine/anti-sedentary).

762 AD    Kana Subigi Teletz came to power (762-764 AD) through the many defeats and humiliating peace caused by his predecesor, Kana Subigi Vinekh. Once the tone of the new foreign policy was set, he levied troops from all his people to crush the Byzantines under Emperor Constantine V. The Slavs, 208,000 of them, who distasted Kana Subigi Teletz, decided to leave the Bulgarian Khanate for the Byzantine Empire (it was possible this was due to famine, but not likely considering the new foreign policy of continual war, as well as the previous successes of Emperor Constantine V). In response, the Emperor accepted the Slavs by settling them along the Artanas River, seperating them apart to keep their sense of nationalism low.

762-763 AD    The Hunno-Bulgar invasion of Thrace began at Kana Subigi Teletz’s direction once his army was assembled. Included with this was some 20,000 Slavic warriors who came to the call of the Khan (so not all the Slavs had emmigrated to Byzantium) besides the host of Bulgars. The first strike of the Bulgars managed the capture of several frontier fortresses, which Kana Subigi Teletz then reinforced expecting a fierce counterattack from the Emperor.

763 AD    Emperor Constantine V decided to attack the Bulgarian Khanate by using his navy to carry cavalry up to mouth of the Danube River as well as making a major thrust up north into Thrace as a second manuever (which was done with the bulk of his legions). His cavalry attack ravaged the economy behind enemy lines once in position, and then rode through Dobrudja to meet the Emperor before the battle was joined with Kana Subigi Teletz at the frontier. Kana Subigi Teletz sensing this, decided to attack the Emperor as quickly as possible while his forces were camped at Anchialus along the Gulf of Burgas. On June 30th, the Hunno-Bulgars engaged the Byzantines at the Battle of Anchialus. The battle raged and casualties were high on both sides, but the day was won by the Byzantines. No chase was given by the Byzantines because of their losses being too extreme, so the Emperor returned to Constantinople..

763-764 AD    Kana Subigi Teletz’s government declined in terms of it’s support for their leader and failed to repair the situation amongst the much weakened economy of the Bulgarian Khanate. So after a year, by 764 AD, the boylar of House Ugain, murdered their leader for his incompetence (as well as using him as a scapegoat for their own lack of success).

764 AD    Another Bulgarian civil war began which led to the death of several boylar, and the support for a new leader, Kana Subigi Sabin, the son-in-law of the late Kana Subigi Kormisosh. Kana Subigi Sabin (764-766 AD) immediately sued for peace with the Byzantine Empire since he was from House Ukil (which was part of the pro-Byzantine party), but hostilities towards the Byzantines were still quite high amongst the Bulgars. When the terms for peace were given which were unfavorable to the Bulgars, Kana Subigi Sabin took them anyways. This made the boylar very upset and so they accused their leader of handing the Khanate over to the Byzantines. At the head of the boylar was a Bulgar named, Pagan (probably from the House of Ugain). Soon after this, Sabin was deposed and fled to the protection of the Emperor (as well as his immediate family).

The Khazars and the Arabs began a new war. As such the Khazars struck with their Rus forces at Tiflis and sieged it successfully destroying the surrounding countryside in Armenia.
Kana Subigi Pagan came to power with the help of the anti-Byzantine party (House Ugain)(764 AD), but soon found himself asking for peace since his economy as well as his military might was heavily depleted. So, he sent an embassy to Constantinople, but the Tabar was not received by the Byzantines. After a time, Kana Subigi Pagan personally arrived at Constantinople to ask for peace with a number of his boylar, but in doing so, Emperor Constantine V demanded that he step down for Sabin to become leader again. Pagan accepted and thus Kana Subigi Sabin was back in power (764-766 AD) as an imperial servant.

764-766 AD    The Bulgarian Khanate’s power was at an all time low due to direct intervention of the Byzantines over the Bulgars under Kana Subigi Sabin who died in 766 AD to leave his relative, Umar in power.

766 AD    Kana Subigi Umar of House Ukil came to power and was out of his position in 40 days due to a boyl named, Toktu, of House Ugain, and his brother, Bayan. Meanwhile, the Emperor Constantine V set himself against the Slavs once again stirring up trouble along the frontier between the Empire and the Bulgarian Khanate. At the conclusion of the campaign, the Byzantines held one of the Slavic princes as a hostage to ensure peaceful negotiations in the future.

766-767 AD    Kana Subigi Toktu came to power (766-767 AD) with his brother, Kavkhan Bayan, and House Ugain in control of the Beylik. The Emperor Constantine V, once again wished to see dark days befall the Bulgars, so he attacked into the Province of Zagora through an undefended sector of captured Bulgarian fortresses. From here, Kana Subigi Toktu and Kavkhan Bayan attacked the Byzantines marching through their territory, but the Bulgars were defeated by the Byzantines. In the chaos that ensued, both of the Bulgar leaders were taken hostage and then executed. The Emperor was then unopposed and he ravaged the Bulgarian Khanate until trouble arose back at home amongst some high ranking officials that needed to be held in check (to be executed themselves).

767 AD    Kana Subigi Pagan came back into power (767 AD), but as soon as the Byzantines had internal conflicts under control back at home, they returned under the dreaded Emperor Constantine V. The first assault was into the Province of Zagora again, which was stopped short of it’s completion when traitorous officials back at home began gnawing away at the Byzantine bureaucracy. The second assault penetrated far above the Long Wall along the road from Diampolis to Pliska, but was halted at the Pass of Veregava once Bulgar resistance availed itself to hold back the Emperor from their capital at Pliska. The Emperor simultaneously sent a fleet of 2,600 transports to land troops behind Bulgar cavalry, but the Byzantines encountered fierce winds which sank all of these ships against the coast (along the Gulf of Burgas). Kana Subigi Pagan on anticipation of the attack moved towards Varna, but was killed by his own slaves. More chaos ensued for no Khan of the Bulgars was to lay claim to becoming Kana Subigi immediately following Pagan’s demise.

768 AD    The Hunno-Bulgars under their respective chieftains (Khans) sued for peace following Kana Subigi Pagan’s death and was granted it by Emperor Constantine V.

770 AD    Khan Telerig came to power as Kana Subigi Telerig and immediately tried to repair the damage that the Byzantines had caused over the years to the Bulgar economy and military (770-777 AD). When he came to his station as overall leader of the Hunno-Bulgars, he decided not to renew the Byzantine Treaty of 768 AD since it was unfavorable towards the Bulgarian Khanate.

773 AD    Sensing the growing power of the Hunno-Bulgars, Emperor Constantine V set forth by land and by sea to either destroy the Bulgars or put them into servitude through another of his peace treaties. Accordingly, in May of this year, 2,000 transports carried cavalry as well as the Emperor to the mouth of the Danube River, while his legions marched through Thrace. After fierce fighting the Bulgars were not able to stop the advance of the Northern Byzantine Army which descended towards the city of Varna, so Kana Subigi Telerig sued for peace (which the Byzantines granted) before things got worse for his people.

Kana Subigi Telerig convinced House Ugain and the anti-Byzantine faction that he had no intention of upholding the terms of the treaty. While he sent his diplomatic Tabar Tsigat to discuss the terms of the said ‘peace’, he gathered 12,000 cavalry to invade Thessaly. This was mainly done to round up the local population there and deport them back into the Khanate (the population in Thessaly mainly consisted of Berzetian Slavs). By October while the terms of the peace treaty were still being discussed in Constantinople, the Emperor became informed of the gathering of these forces to invade Thessaly through his network of spies. Immediately, he assembled his own army in front of Tabar Tsigat saying that they were going fight a new campaign against the Arabs. The deception was believed, and an army of 80,000 Byzantine troops was dispatched to intercept the Hunno-Bulgar force. When the forces met each other in the Balkan Mountains along the River Sliven, the Bulgars merely turned around and left the Byzantine territory on account of the one to eight odds using the speed of their horses to leave the Byzantines behind. No pursuit by the imperial forces was given and they even called it the ‘Noble War’ since no one was killed, but this was just good old Byzantine propaganda.

774 AD    Byzantine Emperor Constantine V planned another of his infamous two spearhead attacks, one by by land through Thrace, and the other to attack Varna by sea. However, the naval defenses at Varna setup under the reign of Kana Subigi Tervel thwarted the landing which then had to turn out to sea where it met with disaster by fierce weather. The Emperor then called off his campaign.
Kana Subigi Telerig realized that the Byzantine spy network at home had to be dealt with, so he cunningly sent a message to the Emperor that he was in danger from a rival political faction with the Khanate. Furthermore, he stated that he would need a list of the agents in Bulgaria to retreat to, should things get out of hand. The Emperor Constantine V concurred and sent him the list which Kana Subigi Telerig used promptly in executing all the traitors in his midst.

775 AD    Emperor Constantine V, outwitted by the Bulgars and furious at Kana Subigi Telerig’s cunning, attacked the Bulgarian Khanate again in September. However, he became sick with a fever early in the campaign and died at the Fortress of Strongylus on September 14th, 775 AD. No doubt it was a good day for the Hunno-Bulgars since he was personally responsible for wrecking their economy, military, and morale amongst it’s people on many occasions. In a sense at his death, the spirit of the Bulgar heart was one which hated the Byzantines and had galvanized the Bulgarian Khanate to despise their wealthy neighbors over Constantine V’s nine military campaigns. Emperor Constantine V was replaced by his son who became Emperor Leo IV (775-780 AD).

777 AD    Civil war broke out again within the Bulgarian Khanate, where on one side was Kana Subigi Telerig and leading the other faction was a boyl named, Kardam. Kardam won and became Kana Subigi Kardam (777-803 AD) while Telerig fled to Constantinople for Emperor Leo IV’s court (it may be extrapolated that Telerig was of House Ukil since he readily adapted Byzantine ways once he reached the Empire and decided never to leave, he even shedAltaic Shamanism for Christianity amongst the Byzantines). Under Kana Subigi Kardam, the Khanate was to rebuild itself to a state of measurable balance and power again.

780 AD    Emperor Leo IV died and left his son, Emperor Constantine VI in charge of the Byzantine Empire (780-796 AD). This Emperor was only 10 when he came to the throne, so his mother, the Empress Irene, became Regent.

781 AD    The Arabs under Caliph al-Machdi (775-785 AD) declared war against the Byzantine Empire and proceded to penetrate the Imperial froniter decimating those that got in their way. After a devasting, bloody fight in the Thracesion Theme later that year, in which the Byzantines lost, Empress Irene had to pay the Arabs annual tribute for peace.

782-783 AD    The Byzantines under Empress Irene launched a campaign against the Slavic tribes around Thessaly and Central Greece where the legions of the Empire were led by the eunuch General Stauracius. After a year, the Byzantines returned with many Slavic prisoners back towards Constantinople where General Stauracius was given a great triumph. Some territorial gains were made by the Empire possibly, but tribute was most certainly given by the Slavs who remained near Thessaly and further to the south in Central Greece.

784 AD    The Byzantine Imperial Forces attacked the Hunno-Bulgars and Slavic tribes near the Long Wall at the direction of Empress Irene. After a time and casualties taken, the Byzantines managed to capture the old Province of Zagora as well as the City of Berrhoea which the Empress renamed, Irenupolis. More Armenians were then transported from the east to settle the new territory. Further to the west, Sardica and the land immediately surrounding it remained with the Byzantines.

785 AD    Caliph al-Hadi (785-786 AD) came to power over the Arab Caliphate.

786 AD    Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 AD) came to power over the Arab Caliphate (who was to later cooperate with Kana Subigi Krum).

787 AD    The Khazars in the Crimea sieged Doras which was the Capital City of Crimean Goths and took it appointing their governor there called a Tudun. The boisterous Goths unhappy with the Khazar occupation of their capital, then took it upon themselves to revolt, but the Khazars once again crushed the resistance. Years after this, the Goths with Byzantine help shattered the Khazars in the region, but were compelled by this deal to rule the area as Byzantine subjects.

789 AD    Strategus Philetus of the Thracian Theme and his legion of Byzantines were attacked by Kana Subigi Kardam’s Hunno Bulgar Cavalry along the Struma River. Under a heavy hail of arrows and through much bloodshed, the Byzantines were decimated. Philetus himself was killed and probably his head was taken as a trophy of war.

790 AD    After some political unrest between Empress Irene and her son, Emperor Constantine VI, the Empress was forced to leave the imperial palace with Constantine VI becoming sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire (790-792 AD).

791 AD    Charlemagne, King of the Franks, invaded the Avar Empire and defeated the Avars in a series of battles west of the Pannonian Steppes. By the end of 791 AD, the Franko-Avar War was well underway.
Emperor Constantine VI engaged the Bulgars near the Probatum Fortress at the frontier in April, but after a skirmish began at night, they fled with panic retreating away from the frontier. Unfortunately, the Bulgars could not take proper advantage of their enemies’ retreat and so casualties were light against the Byzantines.

792 AD    The eager Emperor declared war on the Hunno-Bulgars in July and made his way with his forces to the frontier. This time, Kana Subigi Kardam met Emperor Constantine VI’s forces in a full, pitched battle at the Fortress of Marcellae on July 20th. The Bulgars this day were victorious and slaughtered the Byzantines leaving their bodies upon the field with Emperor Constantine VI fleeing back towards Constantinople. Military equipment, loot, horses, and several Byzantine generals were captured at the end of the engagement. Kana Subigi Kardam was then met by an imperial entourage of diplomats sueing for peace. The peace was granted to the Byzantines on the condition of annual tribute to be paid to the Bulgars in gold every year. The Emperor then was forced to accept his mother back as co-ruler of the Byzantine Empire.

ca. 795 AD    Khan Krum, possibly of Khan Kuber’s Dynasty, became leader of Ogus Kutriguri (of the Pannonian Bulgars). If he was of Khan Kuber’s Dynasty, then he would have been from House Dulo and therefore from the House of Attila (unlike the lineage of House Dulo being erased from the Asparouhian Dynasty).

Chapter Eight
The Sun Shines Again: 796 AD – 814 AD

796 AD    The Franks as well as the Croatians under the command of Charlemagne’s son, Pipin, began a battle with the Avars along the banks of the Tisa River. The battle here was won by the Frankish alliance with Charlemagne’s son taking control of the Khagan’s headquarters and also gaining an immense amount of Avar valuables. Conceivably, the Khan of the Kutriguri, Krum, took notice of the progress of the Franks and calculated that their old overlords might be overthrown for a new order. If the Kutriguri were involved with this battle with the Avars (against the Franks), their losses could not have been too severe amongst their warriors since Khan Krum was to carry out a number of military manuevers between 796-803 AD against the Avars with his ogus. Regardless, after this the Franks set up their own base of operations in the region called, Ostmark (Austria), to continue their war against the Avars.

797 AD    The Empress Irene took direct control of the Byzantine Empire by having her son, Emperor Constantine VI, forcibly blinded and then kicked out of power, which won her no love amongst her subjects. The Empress was to rule from 797-802 AD.

800 AD    Charles The Great (Charlemagne) was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Rome.

ca. 800 AD    Viseslav became leader of the Dalmatian Croatians (ca. 800-ca. 810 AD).

802 AD    Emperor Charlemagne sent a marriage offer to Empress Irene of the Byzantine Empire to rejoin both the east and the west as one united empire. However before this offer was considered, the Empress was exiled by a successful palace revolution which took place on October 31st. The contender for the Emperor’s throne was the former Logothete, Nicephorus, who then became Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I (802-811 AD). Irene eventually found herself exiled to Lesbos after her initial exile to the Princes’ Islands.

Emperor Nicephorus I discontinued payments to the Arab Caliphate and thus angered the Arabs under Caliph Harun al-Raschid who then decided to war upon the Byzantines in the east.

802-803 AD    Khan Krum of Ogus Kutriguri made an alliance with Emperor Charlemagne to attack the Avar Empire from both the east and the west. From then on, the Kutriguri and the Franks with their Croatian allies decimated what was left of the Avar Empire. The Avars were finally layed low before Ogus Kutriguri and the Avar hold over the Pannonian Steppes was finally over. After this, Khan Krum in triumph came to Pliska and was made Kana Subigi Krum in 803 AD (803-814 AD) thus reuniting all the Hunno-Bulgar groups of tribes in the Balkans (Ogus Kutriguri, Ogus Onogunduri (Ogus Onoguri), and portions of Ogus Utiguri as well as Ogus Saraguri). Sometime before this Kana Subigi Kardam passed away with his death being relatively uneventful and obscure, such that the transition of Kana Subigi Krum coming to power was a relatively smooth one with rival factions amongst the Bulgars being quickly put down (if there were any).

803 AD    The Byzantines suffered a new civil war amongst themselves in Asia Minor, but Emperor Nicephorus I managed to strangle it after taking losses. After this event, the Arab Caliphate began to invade the Byzantine Empire with more vigor than before.

803-805 AD     Ogus Kutriguri and the Slavic tribes on the right side of the Tisa River continued to clear the Pannonian Steppes of Avar tribes that would not recognize Kana Subigi Kardam as their new overall leader (or Khagan). By 805 AD this was completed and now the Bulgarian Khanate stretched from the Carpathians Mountains in the North (as well as Transylvania) to the Balkan Mountains in the South with the western border being the Tisa River (Theiss River) and the region of Bessarabia as the farthest eastern area of control which included the Pruth River extending to the Dniester River.

ca. 805 AD    The Governor of Corinth under Emperor Nicephorus I, defeated and subdued some of the Slavs (the Velziti) in the area of Central Greece (Peloponnesus) which greatly pleased the Emperor. After this, a recovery period was made by the Byzantines in rebuilding the City of Patras, but other Slavic tribes such as the Melingi and the Ezeritae held on to their autonomy in Central Greece.

806 AD    The Arabic Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, penetrated deep into Byzantine territory following his capture of several frontier fortresses. Then he successfully sieged Tyana and sent more Arab forces to the region of Ancyra which caused Emperor Nicephorus I to sue for peace. This was granted provided the Byzantines pay annual tribute in gold which was agreed upon. Furthermore, the Emperor was humiliated by personally having to pay 3 gold pieces to the Caliph as a poll-tax on behalf of himself as well as his son, Stauracius.

807 AD    War broke out between the Bulgarian Khanate and the Byzantine Empire probably due to the Emperor not paying the Bulgars their annual tribute (after new payments had to be made to the Arabs). Accordingly, the Byzantine Emperor moved north with his army towards the City of Anchialus, but he hadn’t gotten far when a conspiracy to remove him broke out. After putting down the rebels, the Emperor was compelled to return to Constantinople empty handed, not achieving a damn thing.

808 AD    Kana Subigi Krum, firmly in command of his Khanate and the respective boylar, decided to bring the fight to the Byzantines by invading the Byzantine Empire. In his way however, where many new fortresses rebuilt by the old Bulgar enemy, the late Emperor Constantine V located at Sardica (Sofia), Philippopolis, Adrianople, and Develtus. No matter though, he proceded south with his army of horsemen and devastated a Byzantine army stationed in the Strymon Theme by surprising their force in Winter. So badly defeated was this force of Byzantines that the Hunno-Bulgars and Slavs killed the Strategus of the theme as well as capturing 1,100 pounds of gold which was destined for the Byzantine soldiers.

809 AD    Kana Subigi Krum furthered his campaign against the Byzantines by hitting the first of major fortresses (rebuilt by the Armenians) located at Sardica in March of 809 AD. The Bulgars hated this fortress especially so since it guarded the road to Serbia as well as Northern Macedonia. In any case, Kana Subigi Krum gained entrance to the Fortress of Sardica by the use of his cunning, and then slew the whole Imperial force there (some 6,000 Byzantine troops). After this, he dismantled the fortress and burned the rest down much to his people’s delight. By April 3rd, the Emperor got wind of the invasion’s success and left the capital immediately. Emperor Nicephorus I decided to then target Pliska itself while the Hunno-Bulgars were away, and did so in a timely fashion finding the Bulgar capital almost completely undefended. From there he plundered what he could find and then moved his army over to Sardica (what was left of it) where he forced his soldiers to rebuild some portion of the fortress. Then the Byzantines retired to Constantinople.
Caliph Harun al-Rashid died and civil disorder broke in many of the Arabic cities which created some peace of mind for the Byzantines. Later on, Caliph al-Amin (809-813 AD), was to take control of the Arab Caliphate who was sympathetic towards the Bulgarian Khanate.

ca. 810 AD    The rise to power of the Croatian leader, Borna (ca. 810-821 AD).

811 AD    Tesi Orenda: Emperor Nicephorus I began a new campaign against the Bulgarian Khanate whereby he aimed at the Hunno-Bulgar Capital, Pliska, in May of that year. Crossing the frontier, he met the Bulgar Tabar who sued for peace on behalf of the Khanate, but the Emperor turned him down (at Marcellae). Kana Subigi Krum when hearing about this decision of the Emperor’s, took the main portion of his army and left Pliska towards the Balkan Mountains to the west. The Emperor then reached Pliska, but only found a small garrison stationed there which he decimated, and then burned the city to the ground (July 20th). Upon the order of Emperor Nicephorus I, Bulgar babies were thrown into large, metal threshing machines which he hoped would breed the Hunno-Bulgars out of the area as well as amuse the Byzantines. After this, the Emperor left Pliska and headed west to intercept the Bulgars, but when he proceded into the Balkan Mountains little did he know Kana Subigi Krum had awaited his approach. The Byzantine Imperial Army soon found themselves in a narrow pass which the Bulgars expected them to enter. When they did, Kana Subigi Krum had already built the pass into a deadend with a wooden palisade at one end, so he ordered that another be built at the opposite end. As planned, the trap was furthered by additional fortifications built at both palisades and the Byzantines were indeed caught by surprise. On the night of July 25th, Khagan Krum and all the Hunno-Bulgars attacked butchering the entire Byzantine army. Byzantine soldiers and cavalry rushed towards one end of the palisade, but found no release save death when they climbed the wall which was then set ablaze. Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus I’s head was cut from his body and was turned into a silver-lined drinking chalice by Kana Subigi Krum. This was an impressive triumph for the Bulgars because a Byzantine Emperor had not been slain on the field of battle for about 450 years (that is by so called ‘barbarians’). Even moreso since his son became the next Emperor, Stauracius, and then died a short while later (3 months of lingering) from wounds sustained at this battle. In any case, the Hunno-Bulgars returned to Pliska in victory with Kana Subigi Krum toasting his bolyar with Nicephorus’ skull (‘Zdravitsa!’).

Byzantine Emperor Michael I came to power over Byzantium (811- 813 AD) who was the brother-in-law of the Emperor Stauracius.

812 AD    The Byzantines sent their dignitaries to personally recogonize the imperial dignity of Emperor Charlemagne over the Western Empire.
Kana Subigi Krum launched a new campaign against the Byzantines, by using his Arabic and Avar engineers to help him siege the Fortress of Develtus (on the coast of the Black Sea and part of the Long Wall defense system) as well as the Port of Mesembria. In their travels to the south, the Byzantine Fortresses of Anchialus, Irenupolis, Nicea, and Probatum fled before the might of Khagan Krum’s Army. By November, the Hunno-Bulgars, Slavs, and other peoples with Kana Subigi Krum had captured these objectives (taking immense amounts of populace and booty with them to the north including the secret of ‘Greek Fire’). During this time, the Bulgars had sent the Byzantine Emperor terms for the Peace Treaty of 716 AD to be reinvested, but the Byzantines refused. As such, Kana Subigi Krum continued to war upon the Empire

813 AD    The Battle of Versincia: Kana Subigi Krum moved southward into Thrace and was intercepted by an enormous Byzantine Army under the command of Emperor Michael I at Versinicia in June of

813 AD. Vastly outnumbered, the Bulgars, Slavs, and Avars found themselves at 1 to 10 odds against an immense sea of troops and cavalry formed by consciptions the Emperor had completed in Asia Minor. For 15 days, the Hunno-Bulgars manuevered so as not be stuck in a bad position, but after this, Kana Subigi Krum ordered them to attack. On June 22nd, General Aplaces gave the attack from the Byzantine left wing at the permission of the Emperor and the battle began. Almost immediately, the leader of the Byzantine right wing, General Leo, took his Anatolic Troops and fled the scene (who desired to leave the Emperor in a treacherous position, so he could in turn become Emperor). In any case, Kana Subigi Krum hit hard on General Aplaces Thracian Forces and decimated them with his cavalry. Soon afterwards, the Emperor and the rest fled in terror back towards Constantinople whereby the Hunno-Bulgars struck at them with arrow fire and spear. Finally the Emperor as well as General Leo (Leo the Armenian) made it back to the capital, but at a heavy price.

Deposing The Emperor: Leo the Armenian became Emperor Leo V (813-820 AD) after Emperor Michael I Rangabe was deposed on July 11th of 813 AD due to his failure at the Battle of Versinicia. Also Caliph al-Mamun came to power this same year (813-833 AD), over the Arabs after the demise of Caliph al-Amin.

Spear Thrust Into Byzantium: After the Byzantines were defeated by their own treachery as well as Khagan Krum’s cunning, the Bulgars, Avars, and Slavs moved towards Constantinople. Their first stop was at the City of Adrianople which was sieged by Kana Subigi Krum’s brother while he in turn took his cavalry to the south. Then when he was near to the capital on July 17th of 813 AD, the Bulgars began to terrify the inhabitants of Constantinople who watched them from the walls. Khagan Krum ordered that some of the Byzantine captives as well as other animals be sacrificed to Tangra and then burned before the sight of the Byzantines. As stated by Runciman’s A History of The First Bulgarian Empire on page 63, “They could see the Sublime Khan washing his feet in the waves of the sea and ceremoniously sprinkling his soldiers, or moving in state through rows of adoring concubines, to the raucous acclamation of his hordes.” Shortly thereafter, he received an embassy from Emperor Leo V asking for them to meet on the Shore of the Golden Horn (next to Constantinople). Kana Subigi Krum accepted this invitation, who came to the meeting over land via. horse while the Emperor came over sea via. barge. However, the Emperor decieved the Khagan and tried to have him assassinated. Only through the heroic efforts of Kana Subigi Krum’s bodyguards did he escape the treachery of Leo’s plan. In any case, Khagan Krum then decimated the suburbs, churches, and monastaries around Constantinople while removing the wealth for transport to Pliska. He then moved towards Selymbria to the west and razed it. The Suburbs and villas of Heraclea were likewise burned to the ground and Kana Subigi Krum then destroyed the Fortresses of Doanin, Rhaedestus, and Aprus, while removing the populace to the north. Finally, Khagan Krum moved north back to the City of Adrianople which was still being sieged by his brother. Shortly thereafter the city surrendered when it saw Khagan Krum once again behind it’s walls. All the inhabitants then were taken to the northern shore of the Danube within his Khanate.

The Battle of Leo’s Hill: After a peace offer was sent by Emperor Leo V and then turned down by Khagan Krum (the Byzantines could no longer be trusted after their assassination attempt), the Emperor launched a counterattack. He did this after the Khagan left for the north and surprised a detachment of Bulgar warriors close to the City of Mesembria. In this battle, the Emperor chose a hill near to Mesembria to hide behind while another portion of his army stood out in the open for the Bulgars to attack. The detachment of Khagan Krum’s Hunno-Bulgar army came and closed with the Byzantines out on the plains. When they did, Emperor Leo V came from behind and through much carnage, defeated the detachment of warriors. After this, the Emperor made a small advance into the Bulgarian Khanate killing those misfortunates whom he met (especially the Bulgar children, which is interesting to note that his policy towards the Bulgars was the same as Emperor Nicephorus I (breed the Bulgars out of the area)). However, Emperor Leo V’s success was short-lived as Kana Subigi Krum was roused once again to kill Byzantines.

814 AD    War Continues: Kana Subigi Krum began a new campaign against the Byzantine Empire duing the Winter of 814 AD. It consisted of two assaults with the first serving as a probe as well as a weakening force for the second, larger assault which Khagan Krum would accompany. The first assault formed of some 30,000 warriors penetrated as far south as Arcadiopolis which the Hunno-Bulgars overtook gathering with them some 50,000 captives to take back to the Bulgarian Khanate. The second assault launched in Spring, consisted of Bulgars, Avars, Slavs, and a great number of siege engines aimed directly at taking Constantinople. In haste, Emperor Leo V prepared the city’s defenses as well as sending embassies abroad asking for military aid (including one which went to the Western Emperor Louis). However these were all done to no avail, since Khagan Krum died while campaigning from a cerebral haemorrhage on April 13th, 814 AD.

Chapter Nine
Consolidation of Power: 814 AD – 865 AD

814-815 AD    After the death of Kana Subigi Krum, the second assault launched in Spring was thrown into disorder with the late Khagan’s military council or Beylik taking the reins of government. Evidently, Khagan Krum’s son, Omurtag, was still too young to be put into power as the next Kana Subigi, so Khan Dukum took control of the Bulgarian Khanate. However, after several weeks Khan Dukum died (it is unknown how this came about) with two, new Khans taking control of the Bulgarian Khanate who were Khan Chok (Tsok) and Khan Ditzeng (Dicevg). Both of these Bulgar men were from parties that preferred war with the Byzantines as well as the persecution of Christians from within the Khanate (because this was indicative of the spread of pro-Byzantine culture and ideas amongst the Bulgars, Avars, and Slavs). In any case, by the end of 815 AD Omurtag became the new, absolute leader of the Bulgars as Kana Subigi Omurtag (Khagan Omurtag over the Avars and Slavs). It is likely that Khan Chok and Khan Ditzeng stepped down as Reagents rather than coming to a violent end, but this is all totally unknown (likely because they were traditionalists rather than part of the pro-Byzantine party).

815-816 AD    Consolidation of Power: Kana Subigi Omurtag (815-831 AD) began his reign with interests in consolidating power within the Bulgarian Khanate. To do this, he first made peace with the Byzantine Empire and Emperor Leo V through a new treaty called the “Thirty Years’ Peace”. In the treaty signed in 816 AD, the terms were set with the borders being fixed from Develtus to Macroliada to the Balkan Mountains. Along this border, Kana Subigi Omurtag ordered that a great ditch be dug with a wall behind it and fortifications called, “The Great Fence”. Next within the treaty, provisions were made to have all the prisoners of war returned. Lastly, the Bulgar deserters and traitors were returned to the Bulgarian Khanate for their subsequent executions before the boylar. It is interesting to note that each head of state swore an oath before the other’s people in their religious preference which greatly alarmed the Byzantines. Amusingly, Emperor Leo V followed the rites in swearing an oath before Tangra. While swearing the oath over the sword of Kana Subigi Omurtag, he poured water first onto the sword which then hit the ground. Words were spoken in the pact, “May the blood of one who does not observe his oath pour like water, may Tangra leave his horses without feed by drying grass”.

816 AD    The Arabs gain temporary control over Egypt.

816-818 AD    Dealing With The Spread of Christianity: Greek refugees inside the Bulgarian Khanate began to spread Christianity at an alarming rate. In response Kana Subigi Omurtag cracked down on the leaders which refused to stop converting the populace by rounding them up and killing them (381 total, including the Archbishop Manuel of Adrianople as well as three other bishops). The Bulgar boylar were satisfied that this challenge to their way of life and their culture was at an end from the displaced Byzantines resettled on the north shore of the Danube (from the previous captured citizens of Adrianople back in 813 AD).

818 AD    Slavs along the Timok River, who were previously allied with the Bulgars, broke away from their treaty and turned towards the Franks for support. Soon though, the Timok Slavs turned towards a new leader called, Zupan Ljudevit, who asserted his independence from both the Franks and the Bulgars. Kana Subigi Omurtag chose however to watch and evaluate the situation since his hands were tied with interests in the encroaching Magyars to his northeast.

818-820 AD    Campaign Against The Magyars: Kana Subigi Omurtag ordered that a new campaign be launched against the Magyars and the Slavs to the northeast of his state. The tribe known as the Chakagar was one of many Bulgar tribes sent to push back the Magyars and Slavs from the frontier. It was recorded that a certain Kopan Okors (Okorses) drowned in the Dnieper River while coming back to the Zitkoi (military camp) and that the Bulgars grieved his death with an epitaph left to him by Kana Subigi Omurtag. Later on in 820 AD, the Magyars were met in battle by the Bulgars and were defeated. In response, the Magyars retreated beyond the Don River.

820 AD    Death of an Emperor: On December 25th, 820 AD, Byzantine Emperor Leo V was brutally murdered during prayer at Hagia Sophia in front of the altar by Michael the Amorian (an old officer who served under Leo for the past several years). After this, Michael was crowned Emperor as Michael II (820-829 AD).

821 AD    Founding of Preslav: Khagan Omurtag founded the City of Preslav to the south of Pliska. Within it, he ordered the construction of a new, fortress-palace that had inscribed in it’s foundations the words, “The Sublime Khan Omurtag is divine ruler in the land where he was born. Abiding in the plain of Pliska he made a palace on the Tisza (Ticha) River displaying his power to the Greeks and Slavs. And he constructed with skill a bridge over the Tisza (Ticha) and he set up in his fortress four columns and between the columns he placed two bronze lions. May Tangra grant that the divine ruler may press down the Emperor with his foot so long as the Tisza (Ticha) flows, that he may procure many captives for the Bulgarians and that subduing his foes he may in joy and hapiness live for a hundred years. The date of the foundation Shegor alem.” Note that Preslav would not become the Bulgar Capital until 893 AD.

821-823 AD    Byzantine Civil War Breaks Out!: A portion of the the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor of four themes decided to revolt against Emperor Michael II. Headed by a man named, Thomas The Slav, the revolt was started due to racial, religious, and social reasons. Furthermore, Thomas The Slav was quickly supported by the Arabic Caliphate in terms of resources and supplies (Caliph al-Mamun). Within months of the beginning, Thomas The Slav, with his army of Arabs, Persians, Armenians, Iberians and other Caucasian peoples had made their way to Constantinople and by December of 821 AD was already seiging it. By 822 AD, Emperor Michael II asked Khagan Omurtag for his support and this was granted. Once, Kana Subigi Omurtag and his Bulgar warriors were involved with the struggle, Thomas The Slav’s support began to crumble. So much so, that by the Spring of 823 AD, the siege around the Byzantine Capital was lifted, and Thomas’ Rebellian was in full retreat. By October of 823 AD, Thomas The Slav, was captured by Emperor Michael II in Arcadiopolis, and summarily executed.

823 AD    Franks Invade Ljudevit’s State: The Franks invaded Ljudevit’s State and promptly took it over, forcing Zupan Ljudevit into exile where he died later in 823 AD. Part of this territory in the Pannonian Steppes began to cross into Bulgar territory and so tensions began to develop between the two nations.

824-825 AD    Bulgars Send An Embassy To The Franks: Kana Subigi Omurtag sent out his diplomats to negotiate the delineation of the frontier between the Bulgarian Khanate and the Eastern Frankish Empire centering in Germany (824 AD). King Louis of The Eastern Franks, however delayed his decisions in these matters because he wished to reinforce his position with the rebel Timok Slavs who decided to throw in their lot with the Franks. After a time, Emperor Louis sent his own embassy to the Bulgarian Khanate to see for themselves what Khagan Omurtag’s nation was like. In any case, by May of 825 AD, the Bulgars were given an ambiguous letter back about the frontier which was Louis’ way of delaying things even more so (which was a part of a 2nd Bulgarian embassy that waited six months for this reply).

825 AD    The Rus Khaganate: The Rus free themselves of Khazar authority and establish their own Khaganate centered around the Capital City of Tmutorokan. This was established by continuing warfare and much carnage by the Rus against the Khazars. The Alans living in this area as well as the As placed themselves under the new banner of the old Rus-Tarkhan of the Khazars now calling himself the Khagan.

826 AD    Bulgars Send A Third Embassy To The Franks: Khagan Omurtag frustrated with Louis The German, sent a third embassy to the Franks which demanded a drawing up of the borders between their nations. Louis The German for the third time struck out by giving another flacid statement about the boundries and thus the Bulgar Tabar returned in disgust to Pliska

ca. 826 AD    The Arabs Take Crete!: The Arabic Caliphate sometime between 823 and 828 AD captured Crete. Once there the Arabs used this as a base of piracy to pillage and loot the Mediterranean coastline. Byzantine influence in seafaring along the Adriatic coast was thus thrown into a downward spiral. Arabs on the other hand gained a vantage point to further launch attacks into Africa and Sicily.

827 AD    Attack The Franks!: Kana Subigi Omurtag launched a Bulgar, Avar, and Slavic Campaign to take back the Pannonian Steppes from the Franks. The Bulgar forces hit with such surprise that the rebel Timok Slavs in the region were thrown into disarray. The Franks in the area were killed and the Bulgars had gained a strategic victory bringing back their own governors to the area. Louis The German in response sent his own military counter attack on the Bulgars, but this was again like his dialogue, flacid (he achieved no additional territory through his military response). In total, the Bulgars had sieged and captured the cities of Sirmium, Beograd (which then came to be called Belgrade), as well as Branicevo which helped fortify their position in the area.

829 AD    The Second Bulgar Assault On The Franks: A second assault was sent into the Pannonian Steppes by Kana Subigi Omurtag to push back the frontier some more. As in 827 AD, great success was in the hands of the Bulgar warriors by their quick initiative which resulted in the devastation of Frankish warriors trying to put themselves into the theatre as well as the troublesome Timok Slavs.
The Death of Emperor Michael II: Emperor Michael II died and left his son in power, Emperor Theophilus (829-842 AD).

829-832 AD    The Bulgaro-Frankish War Continues: The Franks tried, but failed over the next couple years to exert authority over the Pannonian Steppes through military attack after attack. In the end though, the Bulgars and Franks signed a peace treaty which was completely favorable to the Bulgars (concerning land). The Bulgars once more proved to be in control of the regions of Srem as well as Pannonia.

830 AD    The Byzantines Are Forced To War With The Arabs: Caliph al-Mamun after dealing with some internal conflicts within his own Caliphate, began a new war with the Byzantines. This Arabic war would continue with varying success by both the Arabs and the Byzantines lasting well into Emperor Theophilus’ reign.

831 AD    The Death of Kana Subigi Omurtag: Khagan Omurtag died in 831 AD and made the youngest of his three sons, Malamir, the next Sublime Khan or Kana Subigi. Knaz Enravota (the eldest of the three sons), and Knaz Svinitse, the next in line, were not chosen to succeed their late father probably because Malamir was born of Omurtag’s favorite wife (or by the primary wife). This also could have been due to Malamir having more favorable personality traits that Kana Subigi Omurtag admired comparative to the other two sons.

The Reign of Kana Subigi Malamir: Kana Subigi Malamir (831-836 AD) continued in his father’s footsteps of keeping a truce with the Byzantine Empire (which was in line with “The Thirty Years Peace”), and keeping Christianity at a minimum within the Bulgarian Khanate (thus Bulgar culture continued to be intact). For the most part his control of the Bulgarian Khanate was uneventful.

833 AD    A New Leader of The Arabs: Caliph al-Mutasim came to power this year (833-842 AD) after his brother passed away. The new Caliph continued to press the Byzantine Empire through more war.

833-835 AD    The Khazars Ask For Help: The Khazar Khagan sent envoys to the Byzantine Empire to ask for their help in constructing defenses along the Don River. Byzantine Emperor Theophilus agreed and sent his engineers to help the Khazars constuct the Fortress of Sarkel which was built at the mouth of the Don River. Furthermore, Emperor Theophilus organized the City of Cherson on the Northern Black Sea Coast as the capital city of a new theme he set up there to help better defend against incursions from the Pontic Steppes (most likely from the Rus which were a thorn in the Khazar’s side as well).

836 AD    A New Sublime Khan: Kana Subigi Malamir renamed himself Kana Subigi Persian (Pressiam)(Pressian) after the Byzantines began a new war with the Bulgars. Angered by fresh hostilities between their two nations, the Khagan did this to unite the Bulgars behind him while instilling fear into the Byzantines by the adoption of a purely Bulgar name (if Malamir and Persian were not one and the same, then it could be argued that Persian was the nephew of Malamir). Evidently, the Byzantines started the war by taking the action of removing the captured civilians from the Northern Danube (which were the old residents of Adrianople captured during Khagan Krum’s time) via. ships back to Imperial territory. Kana Subigi Persian (836-852 AD) reacted then by attacking Byzantine lands near the Fortesses of Philippopolis and Sardica. Through his right-hand man, Kavkhan Isbul, the Bulgars rapidly tore through into these areas and annexed them into the Bulgarian Khanate. Furthermore, the Bulgars then pressed into Macedonia by proceeding towards the City of Thessalonica. There the Bulgars took over the hills of Northern Macedonia, when news came that the Byzantines had sued for peace renewing the old treaty.

838 AD    The Arabs Launch A Massive Campaign!: Caliph al-Mutasim attacked the Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor with a large army and finally was met in battle by the Byzantine Emperor Theophilus directly at Dazmana (after the Arab forces had split into two different armies with Caliph al-Mutasim a part of an army attacking the Fortress of Amorium). After much bloodshed, the Byzantines lost at Dazmana with the Arabs occupying Ancyra on July 22nd, 838 AD. Caliph al-Mutasim’s forces furthered their campaign by taking the Fortress of Amorium in the southern branch of the attack capturing this on August 12th, 838 AD.

839-842 AD    Campaign Against The Serbs: Kana Subigi Persian began a Bulgar campaign to his west against the Serbs. After the Bulgars pushed into the region along the Morava River, they came into contact with the Serbs. The Serbs which were stirred up already by the subdued Timok Slavs living in the area, as well as by Byzantine gold and diplomacy, fought hard against the Bulgars. Under their leader, a man named Vlastimir, the Bulgars found it difficult to flush out the Serbs from their defenses in the hills, suffering large amounts of casualties. After three years of gaining no advantage over the Serbs, Kana Subigi Persian called a halt to the hostilities.

840 AD    The Khazars Attack The Rus!: The Khazar Khagan of this time period decided to launch a new campaign with his Magyars against the Rus which would cut through towards the City of Kiev. The Magyars dominated the scene and conquered the peoples within the nearby areas. Then Kiev fell to the Magyars under their resourceful leader, Voevoda Olom. Voevoda Olom was then made the governor of Kiev by the Khazar Khagan for his swift defeat of the Rus here.

842 AD    The Death of Two Leaders: Emperor Theophilus and Caliph al-Mutasim both died in this year. Within the Byzantine Empire, Emperor Michael III was placed on the throne (842-867 AD), while his mother,Theodora, ruled as Empress-Regent (since he was the 3 year old son of the late Emperor). Also, Theodora had to share her power with Theophilus’ sister, Thecla, as Co-regent. Within the Arabic Caliphate, Caliph al-Wathik came to power (842-847 AD). In less than a year, hostilities opened up between the Byzantines and the Arabs going into full-scale warfare.

843-844 AD    The Byzantines Attack Crete!: The Logothete Theoctistus led a naval attack against the Arabs at Crete and succeeded in knocking out the defenses there. However, the Byzantines were only able to hold Crete for about a year until 844AD due to a counter attack launched by the Arabs which succeeded.

844 AD    The Arabs Make A Comeback!: Due to the success achieved by the late Caliph al-Mutasim in taking over Ancyra as well as the Fortress of Amorium, Caliph al-Wathik commanded his Arabic forces to penetrate deep into Byzantine territory. At Mauropotamus, which enters the Bosphorus, the Arabs inflicted a serious defeat against the Byzantines in a land attack which killed many Byzantine soldiers.

845 AD    Peace Treaty With The Franks: Kana Subigi Persian prepared for war against the Byzantines because of the “Thirty Years’ Peace” coming to a close in the next year (816-846 AD). He did this by sending ambassadors to Louis The German in the west which succeeded and left his hands free to focus strictly on war with the Byzantines. Kana Subigi Persian must have felt that the Arabs had caused serious damage in the east, so the time was ripe for war.
Trpimir I came to power in Dalmatian Croatia.

845-846 AD    Byzantine and Arabic Peace Treaty: Due to internal conflicts within the Arabic Caliphate, Caliph al-Wathik, was forced to settle a peace treaty with the Byzantines (with Empress-Regent Theodora) near the River Lamus. Here an exchange of prisoners took place between the two nations at the border. The Byzantine-Arabic War before this had caused great hardships for the Byzantines, so they were quick to make peace with the Arabs once it was offered. Also they were suffering from internal conflicts of their own with the Peloponnese Slavs.

846 AD    The End of The Thirty Years Peace: The old treaty signed by Kana Subigi Omurtag and Emperor Leo V was up, so Kana Subigi Persian took the initiative to start a new invasion of the Byzantine Empire towards the regions of Struma and Nestos. At the head of this invasion, Kavkhan Isbul, was sent to wreck havok on the Byzantines. Soon, the Bulgars, Avars, and Slavs advanced on the City of Philippolis where they seiged it until it fell to them. Then, Kavkhan Isbul moved further to the south towards the City of Philppi. When they did they received news that the Empress-Regent Theodora was attacking Bulgar territories elsewhere, and so they stopped their campaign to put an end to her own campaign. In any case, shortly

thereafter a new peace treaty was drawn up between the Bulgars and the Byzantines (the terms being unknown, except that the Bulgars had gained territory into Northern Macedonia).

847 AD    Caliph al-Mutawakkil came to power over the Arabic Caliphate (847-861 AD).

849 AD    Corruption In The Family: Knaz Enravota coverted to Christianity through one of the old family slaves, and subsequently was captured on suspicions of being a traitor to his people. Then Kana Subigi Persian asked his brother to give up his new religion and this was refused by Enravota. Therefore, Kana Subigi Persian, had his brother executed (for the same reasons that their father would not have tolerated any Christians). If Enravota was not executed in this year than he was executed in 833 AD, three years before Kana Subigi Persian came to power (or three years before Kana Subigi Malamir died according to other viewpoints…if Malamir and Persian were not one and the same person).

852 AD    The Betrayer: Kana Subigi Persian died and was replaced by his nephew, Boris, who was the son of Knaz Svinitse. Boris (852-889 AD) then as his first action threatened Byzantium, but Theodora was quick to threaten back claiming that she would lead the Imperial forces herself. She further claimed that if he won, it would be no great victory and that if she won, it would result in his absolute disgrace. He struggled with this for sometime and then accepted that there should be peace between their two nations after she gave him the incentive of moving the frontier some 25 miles to the south of Develtus towards the Iron Gate.

Embassy Sent To Louis The German: Boris now felt his hold on Pannonia had slipped out of his grasp, so he sent an embassy to the Eastern Franks under King Louis at Mainz. The talks discussed the Franks control over Pannonian Croatia (once again), but fell short with the Bulgars failing in their negotiations (coming out of the talks empty handed).

853 AD    Boris Attacks Pannonian Croatia: Boris sent a Bulgar campaign to attack Pannonian Croatia controlled by the Franks and the Croats. Furthering his aims, he made an alliance with Rastislav of Moravia. However, Boris and his army were defeated. After this, Boris then drew up a new treaty with Louis The German.

Egypt Attacked!: The Byzantine navy made a bold assault on the Egyptian Fortress of Damietta (near the mouth of the Nile River) and seiged it. After a time, it was captured and then razed. Previously, this base was used by the Arabs to provide support to Crete for raids along the Adriatic Coast.

856 AD    Coup D’Etat Within Byzantium: Michael III wrestled contol of the Byzantine Empire away from Empress-Regent Theodora whereby he was proclaimed by the Senate as Emperor Michael III.

860 AD    A New Campaign Against The Serbs: Boris after talking with the Byzantines and keeping them in check, attacked the Serbs. Vlastimir now dead, was succeeded by his three sons, Mutimir (Muntimer), Strojimir, and Gojnik which united against the Bulgars. There in the hills of Serbia, Boris was defeated worse than his uncle was in that his own son, Vladimir, as well as 12 of his boylar were captured. Boris then payed the ransom money to get these people back and called a halt to the war, but not without striking up a friendship with Mutimir by the offering of rich gifts to him (which later paid off).
The Rus Attack Constantinople!: A large army of Rus landed next to Constantinople and then attacked the capital. After the Rus had destroyed the suburbs and the countryside, they were finally forced to turn away from their fun by Emperor Michael III coming back from fighting with the Arabs. Once this was done, Emperor Michael III, sent an embassy to the Khazars renewing relations to help fortify their position against the Rus Khaganate.

ca. 860 AD    Serbian Civil War Breaks Out!: Mutimir, Strojimir, and Gojnik began to fight against each other with respective Serbian forces. At the end of the Serbian Civil War, Mutimir was victorious, and with his friend, Boris, sent his brothers to prison in the Bulgarian Khanate.

862-863 AD    The Slavic Alphabet: Two Christian missionaries, Constantine and Methodius, invented the Slavic Alphabet before visiting Rastislav in Moravia.

864-865 AD    Christian Plague: Boris converted to Christianity and within a short time called himself Tsar Michael, ending the traditions of the Bulgarian Khanate. Furthermore after making this the new state religion, he executed many leading Bulgar boylar and their families. 52 families holding together in their traditionalistic culture were thus extinguished. By 865, the Rus converted to Christianity as well, and as the plague spread, the Khazars, converted to Judaism. With the spread of the new Christian alphabet, the culture was at an end.